Gēr, Hebrew Strong’s #1616, is used 92 times in the Old Testament. It is translated as stranger (87), alien (1), sojourner (1), stranger + <H376> (1), stranger + <H4480> (1), and strangers + <H582> (1). It is translated as “alien” in the following verse:
Nokrî, Hebrew Strong’s #5237, is used 45 times in the Old Testament. It is translated as stranger (18), strange (17), alien (4), strange woman (3), foreigner (2), outlandish (1), and stranger + <H376> (1). It is translated as “alien” in the following verses:Exodus 18:3 - And her two sons; of which the name of the one was Gershom; for he said, I have been an alien in a strange land:
Deuteronomy 14:21 - Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself: thou shalt give it unto the stranger that is in thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto an alien: for thou art an holy people unto the LORD thy God.
Job 19:14-15 - My kinsfolk have failed, and my familiar friends have forgotten me. They that dwell in mine house, and my maids, count me for a stranger: I am an alien in their sight.
Psalm 69:8 - I am become a stranger unto my brethren, and an alien unto my mother's children.
Nēkār, Hebrew Strong’s #5236, is used 35 times in the Old Testament. It is translated as strange (17), stranger + <H1121> (10), stranger (7), and alien (1). It is translated “alien” in the following verse:Lamentations 5:2 - Our inheritance is turned to strangers, our houses to aliens.
Apallotrioō, Greek Strong’s #526, is used 3 times in the New Testament. It is translated as be alienated with + <G5607> (2), and be alien (1) in the following verses:Isaiah 61:5 - And strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, and the sons of the alien shall be your plowmen and your vinedressers.
Ephesians 2:12 - That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:
Ephesians 4:18 - Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart:
Allotrios, Greek Strong’s #245, is used 14 times in the New Testament. It is translated as stranger (4), another man's (4), strange (2), other men's (2), other (1), and alien (1). It is translated as ”alien” in the following verse:Colossians 1:21 - And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled
DEFINITIONSHebrews 11:34 - Quenched the violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong, waxed valiant in fight, turned to flight the armies of the aliens.
Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language, 1828
A'LIEN, adjective alyen, [Latin alienus, from alius, another. Latin alieno, to alienate; alter, another, to altercate.]
1. Foreign; not belonging to the same country, land or government.
2. Belonging to one who is not a citizen.
3. Estranged; foreign; not allied; adverse to; as, principles alien from our religion.
Bouvier’s Dictionary of Law, 1856:A'LIEN, noun alyen.
1. A foreigner; one born in, or belonging to, another country; one who is not a denizen, or entitled to the privileges of a citizen.
2. In scripture, one who is a stranger to the church of Christ, or to the covenant of grace.
At that time, ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel. Ephesians 2:12.
In France, a child born of residents who are not citizens, is an alien In Great Britain, the children of aliens born in that country, are mostly natural born subjects; and the children of British subjects, owing allegiance to the crown of England, though born in other countries, are natural subjects, and entitled to the privileges or resident citizens.
Alien-duty, a tax upon goods imported by aliens, beyond the duty on the like goods imported by citizens; a discriminating duty on the tonnage of ships belonging to aliens, or any extra duties imposed by laws or edicts on aliens.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 1st Edition, 1891ALIEN, persons.
1. One born out of the jurisdiction of the United States, who has not since been naturalized under their constitution and laws. To this there are some exceptions, as this children of the ministers of the United States in foreign courts. See Citizen, Inhabitant.
2. Aliens are subject to disabilities, have rights, and are bound to perform duties, which will be briefly considered.
3. An alien, even after being naturalized, is ineligible to the office of president of the United States; and in some states, as in New York, to that of governor; he cannot be a member of congress, till the expiration of seven years after his naturalization. An alien can exercise no political rights whatever; he cannot therefore vote at any political election, fill any office, or serve as a juror. 6 John. R. 332.
- 1. Disabilities. An alien cannot in general acquire title to real estate by the descent, or by other mere operation of law; and if he purchase land, he may be divested of the fee, upon an inquest of office found. To this general rule there are statutory exceptions in some of the states;
2. An alien has a right to acquire personal estate, make and enforce contracts in relation to the same he is protected from injuries, and wrongs, to his person and property, his relative rights and character; he may sue and be sued.
3. He owes a temporary local allegiance, and his property is liable to taxation. Aliens are either alien friends or alien enemies. It is only alien friends who have the rights above enumerated; alien enemies are incapable, during the existence of war to sue, and may be ordered out of the country.
A foreigner; one born abroad; a person resident in one country, but owing allegiance to another. In England, one born out of the allegiance of the king. In the United States, one born out of the jurisdiction j of the United states, and who has not been naturalized under their constitution and laws. 2 Kent, Comm. 50.
In international law. Alien friend. An alien who is the subject or citizen of a foreign government at peace with our own.
ALIEN AND SEDITION LAWS.
Acts of congress of July 6 and July 14. 1798. 'See Whart. State Tr. 22.
In international law. An alien who is the subject or citizen of some hostile state or power. See Dyer. 2b; Co. Litt. 129b. A person who. by reason of owing a permanent or temporary allegiance to a hostile power becomes, in time of war, impressed with the character of an enemy, and. as such, is disabled from suing in the courts of the adverse belligerent. See 1 Kent, Comm. 74; 2 Id. 63; 10 Johns. 183.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 2nd Edition, 1910ALIEN FRIEND.
The subject of a nation with which we are at peace; an alien amy.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 4th Edition, 1968ALIEN, n.
A foreigner ; one born abroad ; a person resident in one country, but owing allegiance to another. In England, one born out of the allegiance of the king. In the United States, one born out of the jurisdiction of the United States, and who has not been naturalized under their constitution and laws. 2 Kent, Comm. 50; Ex parte Dawson, 3 Bradf. Sur. (N. Y.) 130; Lynch v. Clarke. 1 Sandf. Ch. (N. Y.) 008; Lyons v. State, G7 Cal. 380, 7 Pac. 703.
—Alien amy. In international law. Alien friend. An alien who is the subject or citizen of a foreign government at peace with our own.
—Alien and sedition laws. Acts of congress of July 0 and July 14, 179S. See Whart. State Tr. 22.
—Alien enemy. In international law. An alien who is the subject or citizen of some hostile state or power. See Dyer, 2b; Co. Litt. 129i. A person who, by reason of owing a permanent or temporary allegiance to a hostile power, becomes, in time of war, impressed with the character of an enemy, and, as such, is disabled from suing in the courts of the adverse belligerent. See 1 Kent, Comm. 74; 2 Id. 03; Bell v. Chapman. 10 Johns. (X. Y.) 1S3: Dorsev v. Brighnm, 177 III. 250, 52 X. E. 303. 42 L R. A. 809. 09 Am. St. Rep. 228.
—Alien friend. The subject of a nation with which we are at peace; an alien
A foreigner; one born abroad. A person who owes allegiance to a foreign government. De Cano v. State, 7 Wash.2d 613, 110 P.2d 627, 631, 633.
In this country is a person born out of the United States and unnaturalized under our Constitution and laws, 2 Kent, Comm. 50. Caparell v. Goodbody, 132 N.J.Eq. 559, 29 A.2d 5.63, 569. In England, one born out of the allegiance of the king.
A native born Filipino living in the United States but not admitted to United States citizenship was an "alien". United States v. Gancy, D.C.Minn., 54 F.Supp. 755, 758, 759. But term for immigration purposes would not apply to a Filipino seeking to enter the Territory of Hawaii or to a Filipino lawfully admitted to Hawaii who seeks entry therefrom into the United States. Id. Nor to citizens of the Philippine Islands of the Filipino race. De Cano v. State, 7 Wash.2d 613, 110 P.2d 627, 631, 633. As to the effect of marriage on the status of women, whether they were originally aliens or citizens of the- United States, see 8 U.S.C.A. §i 9-368; U. S. ex rel. Ulrich v. Kellogg, 58 App.D.C. 360, 30 F.2d 984, 985, 71 A.L.R. 1210. Petition of Peterson, D.C.Wash., 33 F.Supp. 615, 616. Johansen v. Staten Island Shipbuilding Co., 272 N.Y. 140, 5 N.E.2d 68, 70. In re Pezzi, D.C.Cal., 29 F.2c1. 999, 1001.
In international law, alien friend. An alien who is the subject or citizen of a foreign government at peace with our own.
ALIEN AND SEDITION LAWS.
Acts of congress of July 6 and July 14, 1798. See Whart. State Tr. 22.
In international law, an alien who is the subject or citizen of some hostile state or power. See Dyer, 2b; Co.Litt. 129b. A person who, by reason of owing a permanent or temporary allegiance to a hostile power, becomes, in time of war, impressed with the character of an enemy. See 1 Kent, Comm. 74; 2 Id. 63; Bell v. Chapman, 10 Johns., N.Y., 183; Dorsey v. Brigham, 177 Ill. 250, 52 N.E. 303, 42 L.R.A. 809. Subjects of a foreign state at war with United States. Caparell v. Goodbody, 132 N.J.Eq. 559, 29 A.2d 563, 569.
Whether or not a person is an alien enemy depends, not on his nationality, but on the place in which he voluntarily resides or carries on business. Porter v. Freudenberg,  1 K.B. 857. See, also, Noble v. Great American Ins. Co., 194 N.Y.S. 60, 66, 200 App.Div. 773.
MISCELLANEOUS CITATIONSALIEN FRIEND.
Subjects of a foreign state at peace with the United States. Caparell v. Goodbody, 132 N.J.Eq. 559, 29 A.2d 563, 569, 570. Or citizen; an alien amy. Techt v. Hughes, 229 N.Y. 222, 128 N.E. 185, 186, 11 A.L.R. 166.
8 U.S. Code § 1101 – Definitions
(3)The term “alien” means any person not a citizen or national of the United States.
QUOTATIONS10 U.S. CODE § 948A – DEFINITIONS
(1) Alien. — The term “alien” means an individual who is not a citizen of the United States.
King George III:
Felix FrankfurterKnavery seems to be so much the striking feature of its [America's] inhabitants that it may not in the end be an evil that they will become aliens to the kingdom.
John F. Kennedy:The requirement of “due process” is not a fairweather or timid assurance. It must be respected in periods of calm and in times of trouble; it protects aliens as well as citizens.
We are not afraid to entrust the American people with unpleasant facts, foreign ideas, alien philosophies, and competitive values. For a nation that is afraid to let its people judge the truth and falsehood in an open market is a nation that is afraid of its people.
There have been “aliens” for thousands of years, since people began to move about and resettle. But that’s about to change…
Fast-forward to August 10, 2015…
Gov. Brown Signs Bill to Remove the Term ‘Alien’ from California Labor Code : SB432
You can read the bill HERE.SACRAMENTO, Calif. /California Newswire/ — Calif. Governor Jerry Brown today signed SB 432 by Senator Tony
Mendoza (D-Artesia), Chair of the Senate Labor and Industrial Relations Committee. The bill modernizes outdated law by deleting the term “alien” from the California Labor Code, as a definition for an immigrant individual. The new law goes into effect on January 1, 2016.
“I applaud Governor Brown for signing SB 432. My bill modernizes the Labor Code and removes the term “alien” to describe a person who is not born in or a fully naturalized citizen of the United States,” said Senator Tony Mendoza. “Alien is now commonly considered a derogatory term for a foreign-born person and has very negative connotations.”
The United States is a country of immigrants who not only form an integral part of our culture and society, but are also critical contributors to our economic success. Immigrants work and pay taxes, create new products, businesses, and technologies and generate jobs for all Americans.
In 2013, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), there were 25.3 million foreign-born persons in the U.S. labor force, comprising 16.3 percent of the total (Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Foreign-Born Workers: Labor Force Characteristics in 2013”). The BLS also found that foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be employed in service occupations. Furthermore, the U.S. Department of Treasury notes that immigrants own 10.8 percent of all firms with employees, providing job opportunities for thousands of Americans.
“California is among the top destination states for immigrants in the United States. Given the abundant evidence of their many contributions, it is imperative that any derogative references to foreign-born individuals be repealed from state law,” added Senator Mendoza.
In 1937, the Legislature enacted various provisions regarding the employment of “aliens”, who are defined as any person who is not a born or fully naturalized citizen of the United State, and a provision which prescribes an order for the issuance of employment under specified public works contracts – first to citizens of the United States, second to citizens of other States in the United States, and third to aliens. The Legislature repealed most of these Labor Code sections in 1970. Unfortunately, the definition for “alien” and the order under which employment is to be given to “aliens” was not repealed and are still found in the Labor Code.
SB 432 deletes the term “alien” as a definition for an immigrant individual and the outdated requirement the law which prescribes an order for the issuance of employment under public works contracts to citizens and aliens.
Under current law, all employment protections, rights, and remedies available under state law, except as prohibited by federal law, are available to all individuals regardless of immigration status. (Labor Code §1171.5) Over the last few years, several bills have been passed and signed into law which has strengthened labor law protections for immigrant workers.
“The word “alien,” and any law prescribing an order for the issuance of employment to “aliens”, have no place in the laws of our state and more importantly, should never be the basis for any employment hiring. SB 432 deletes this outdated, discriminatory and unnecessary reference in state law,” said Senator Mendoza.
According to a study conducted by the Pew Research Center, the use of “illegal alien,” a term considered insensitive by many, reached its low point in 2013, dropping to 5% of terms used. It had consistently been in double digits in the other periods studied, peaking at 21% in 2007.
Senator Tony Mendoza, a Los Angeles native and former elementary school teacher in East Los Angeles, represents the 32nd Senate District encompassing portions of Los Angeles and Orange Counties. For more information about Senator Mendoza visit his website http://sd32.senate.ca.gov/node/4
From George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four:
Think about the ramifications of eliminating the term “alien” from code. If there is no term “alien”, well then there are no aliens. How could that be? In a one world order, there are no foreigners, therefore no aliens. The integration of North America is well under way, followed by the Western Hemisphere integration, and then universal integration. The goal being “world citizenship,” unless you’re from another world, no aliens will exist.“Newspeak was designed not to extend but to diminish the range of thought, and this purpose was indirectly assisted by cutting the choice of words down to a minimum.”