Tōqep, Hebrew Strong's #8633, is found three times in the Old Testament. It is translated as power (1), strength (1), authority (1). It is translated as “authority” in the following verse:
Rābâ, Hebrew Strong's #7235, is found 226 times in the Old Testament. While it is most often translated as multiply (74), increase (40), much (29), many (28), it is translated 1 time as “authority”:Esther 9:29 - Then Esther the queen, the daughter of Abihail, and Mordecai the Jew, wrote with all authority, to confirm this second letter of Purim.
Exousia, Greek Strong's #1849, is used 103 times in the New Testament. It is translated as power (69), authority (29), right (2), liberty (1), jurisdiction (1), strength (1).Proverbs 29:2 - When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice: but when the wicked beareth rule, the people mourn.
Matthew 7:29 - For he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.
Matthew 8:9 - For I am a man under authority, having soldiers under me: and I say to this man, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it.
Matthew 21:23-27 - And when he was come into the temple, the chief priests and the elders of the people came unto him as he was teaching, and said, By what authority doest thou these things? and who gave thee this authority? And Jesus answered and said unto them, I also will ask you one thing, which if ye tell me, I in like wise will tell you by what authority I do these things. The baptism of John, whence was it? from heaven, or of men? And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say unto us, Why did ye not then believe him? But if we shall say, Of men; we fear the people; for all hold John as a prophet. And they answered Jesus, and said, We cannot tell. And he said unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things.
Mark 1:22 - And they were astonished at his doctrine: for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the scribes.
Mark 1:27 - And they were all amazed, insomuch that they questioned among themselves, saying, What thing is this? what new doctrine is this? for with authority commandeth he even the unclean spirits, and they do obey him.
Mark 11:28-29 - And say unto him, By what authority doest thou these things? and who gave thee this authority to do these things? And Jesus answered and said unto them, I will also ask of you one question, and answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I do these things.
Mark 13:34 - For the Son of man is as a man taking a far journey, who left his house, and gave authority to his servants, and to every man his work, and commanded the porter to watch.
Luke 4:36 - And they were all amazed, and spake among themselves, saying, What a word is this! for with authority and power he commandeth the unclean spirits, and they come out.
Luke 7:8 - For I also am a man set under authority, having under me soldiers, and I say unto one, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it.
Luke 9:1 - Then he called his twelve disciples together, and gave them power and authority over all devils, and to cure diseases.
Luke 19:17 - And he said unto him, Well, thou good servant: because thou hast been faithful in a very little, have thou authority over ten cities.
Luke 20:2-20 - And spake unto him, saying, Tell us, by what authority doest thou these things? or who is he that gave thee this authority? And he answered and said unto them, I will also ask you one thing; and answer me: The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men? And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say, Why then believed ye him not? But and if we say, Of men; all the people will stone us: for they be persuaded that John was a prophet. And they answered, that they could not tell whence it was. And Jesus said unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things. Then began he to speak to the people this parable; A certain man planted a vineyard, and let it forth to husbandmen, and went into a far country for a long time. And at the season he sent a servant to the husbandmen, that they should give him of the fruit of the vineyard: but the husbandmen beat him, and sent him away empty. And again he sent another servant: and they beat him also, and entreated him shamefully, and sent him away empty. And again he sent a third: and they wounded him also, and cast him out. Then said the lord of the vineyard, What shall I do? I will send my beloved son: it may be they will reverence him when they see him. But when the husbandmen saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, This is the heir: come, let us kill him, that the inheritance may be ours. So they cast him out of the vineyard, and killed him. What therefore shall the lord of the vineyard do unto them? He shall come and destroy these husbandmen, and shall give the vineyard to others. And when they heard it, they said, God forbid. And he beheld them, and said, What is this then that is written, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner? Whosoever shall fall upon that stone shall be broken; but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder. And the chief priests and the scribes the same hour sought to lay hands on him; and they feared the people: for they perceived that he had spoken this parable against them. And they watched him, and sent forth spies, which should feign themselves just men, that they might take hold of his words, that so they might deliver him unto the power and authority of the governor.
John 5:27 - And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man.
Acts 9:14 - And here he hath authority from the chief priests to bind all that call on thy name.
Acts 26:10 - Which thing I also did in Jerusalem: and many of the saints did I shut up in prison, having received authority from the chief priests; and when they were put to death, I gave my voice against them.
Acts 26:12 - Whereupon as I went to Damascus with authority and commission from the chief priests,
1 Corinthians 15:24 - Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power.
2 Corinthians 10:8 - For though I should boast somewhat more of our authority, which the Lord hath given us for edification, and not for your destruction, I should not be ashamed:
1 Peter 3:22 - Who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God; angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto him.
Katexousiazō, Greek Strong's #2715, is found 2 times in the New Testament, translated as “exercise authority upon” in the following verses:Revelation 13:2 - And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.
Matthew 20:25 - But Jesus called them unto him, and said, Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are great exercise authority upon them.
Exousiazō, Greek Strong's #1850, is found 4 times in the New Testament. It is translated as have power of (2), exercise authority upon (1), bring under power (1). It is translated as “exercise authority upon” in the following verse:Mark 10:42 - But Jesus called them to him, and saith unto them, Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and their great ones exercise authority upon them.
Dynastēs, Greek Strong's #1413 is found 3 times in the New Testament. It is translated as mighty (1), of great authority (1), Potentate (1). It is translated as “of great authority” in the following verse:Luke 22:25 - And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors.
Hyperochē, Greek Strong's #5247, is found 2 times in the New Testament. It is translated as excellency (1), authority (1). It is translated as “authority: in the following verse: .Acts 8:27 - And he arose and went: and, behold, a man of Ethiopia, an eunuch of great authority under Candace queen of the Ethiopians, who had the charge of all her treasure, and had come to Jerusalem for to worship,
Authenteō, Greek Strong's #831, is found 1 time in the New Testament, translated as “usurp authority over” in the following verse:1 Timothy 2:2 - For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.
Epitagē, Greek Strong's #2003, is found 7 times in the New Testament. It is translated as commandment (6), authority (1). It is translated as “authority” in the following verse:1 Timothy 2:12 - But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.
Titus 2:15 - These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee.
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1939
Issue the Sixteenth of Matters concerning His Lawful assembly (From The Christian Jural Society News)
Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language, 1828
Bouvier’s Law Dictionary, 1856AUTHOR'ITY, noun [Latin auctoritas.]
1. Legal power, or a right to command or to act; as the authority of a prince over subjects, and of parents over children. Power; rule; sway.
2. The power derived from opinion, respect or esteem; influence of character or office; credit; as the authority of age or example, which is submitted to or respected, in some measure, as a law, or rule of action. That which is claimed in justification or support of opinions and measures.
3. Testimony; witness; or the person who testifies; as, the Gospels or the evangelists are our authorities for the miracles of Christ.
4. Weight of testimony; credibility; as a historian of no authority
5. Weight of character; respectability; dignity; as a magistrate of great authority in the city.
6. Warrant; order; permission.
By what authority dost thou these things. Matthew 21:23. Acts 9:14.
7. Precedents, decisions of a court, official declarations, respectable opinions and says, also the books that contain them, are call authorities, as they influence the opinions of others; and in law, the decisions of supreme courts have a binding force upon inferior courts, and are called authorities.
8. Government; the persons or the body exercising power or command; as the local authorities of the states.
In Connecticut, the justices of the peace are denominated the civil authority
1. By this word is understood the citations which are made of laws, acts of the legislature, and decided cases, and opinions of elementary writers. In its more confined sense, this word means, cases decided upon solemn argument which are said to 'be authorities for similar judgments iii like cases. 1 Lilly's Reg. 219. These latter are sometimes called precedents. (q. v.) Merlin, Repertoire, mot Autorites.
2. It has been remarked, that when we find an opinion in a text writer upon any particular point, we must consider it not merely as the opinion of the author, but as the supposed result of the authorities to which he refers; 3 Bos. & Pull. 361; but this is not always the case, and frequently the opinion is advanced with the reasons which support it, and it must stand or fall as these are or are not well founded. A distinction has been made between writers who have, and those who have not holden a judicial station; the former are considered authority, and the latter are not so considered unless their works have been judicially approved as such. Ram. on Judgments, 93. But this distinction appears not to be well founded; some writers who have occupied a judicial station do not possess the talents or the learning of others who have not been so elevated, and the works or writings of the latter are much more deserving the character of an authority than those of the former. See 3 T. R. 4, 241.
1. The delegation of power by one person to another.
2. We will consider, 1. The delegation 2. The nature of the authority. 3. The manner it is to be executed. 4. The effects of the authority.
3. 1. The authority may be delegated by deed, or by parol. 1. It may be delegated by deed for any purpose whatever, for whenever an authority by parol would be sufficient, one by deed will be equally so. When the authority is to do something which must be performed through the medium of a deed, then the authority must also be by deed, and executed with all the forms necessary, to render that instrument perfect; usless, indeed, the principal be present, and verbally or impliedly authorizes the agent to fix his name to the deed; 4 T. R. 313; W. Jones, R. 268; as, if a man be authorized to convey a tract of land, the letter of attorney must be by deed. Bac. Ab. h. t.; 7 T. R. 209; 2 Bos. & Pull, 338; 5 Binn. 613;. 14 S. & A. 331; 6 S. & R. 90; 2 Pick. R. 345; 6 Mass. R. 11; 1 Wend. 424 9 Wend. R. 54, 68; 12 Wend. R. 525; Story, Ag. §49; 3 Kent, Com. 613, 3d edit.; 3 Chit. Com. Law, 195. But it does not require a written authority to sign an unscaled paper, or a contract in writing not under seal. Paley on Ag. by Lloyd, 161; Story, Ag. §50.
4. 2. For many purposes, however, the authority may be by parol, either in writing not under seal, or verbally, or by the mere employment of the agent. Pal. on Agen. 2. The exigencies of commercial affairs render such an appointment indispensable; business would be greatly embarrassed, if a regular letter of attorney were required to sign or negotiate a promissory note or bill of exchange, or sell or buy goods, or write a letter, or procure a policy for another. This rule of the common law has been adopted and followed from the civil law. Story, Ag. §47; Dig. 3, 3, 1, 1 Poth. Pand. 3, 3, 3; Domat, liv. 1, tit. 15, §1, art. 5; see also 3 Chit. Com. Law, 5, 195 7 T. R. 350.
5. 2. The authority given must have been possessed by the person who delegates it, or it will be void; and it must be of a thing lawful, or it will not justify the person to whom it is given. Dyer, 102; Kielw. 83. It is a maxim that delegata potestas non potest delegari, so that an agent who has a mere authority must execute it himself, and cannot delegate his authority to a sub agent. See 5 Pet. 390; 3 Story, R. 411, 425; 11 Gill & John. 58; 26 Wend. 485; 15 Pick. 303, 307; 1 McMullan, 453; 4 Scamm. 127, 133 ; 2 Inst.
597. See Delegation.
6. Authorities are divided into general or special. A general authority is one which extends to all acts connected with a particular employment; a special authority is one confined to "an individual instance." 15 East, 408; Id. 38.
7. They are also divided into limited and unlimited. When the agent is bound by precise instructions, it is limited; and unlimited when be is left to pursue his own discretion. An authority is either express or implied.
8. An express authority may be by deed of by parol, that is in writing not under seal, or verbally.. The authority must have been actually given.
9. An implied authority is one which, although no proof exists of its having been actually given, may be inferred from the conduct of the principal; for example, when a man leaves his wife without support, the law presumes he authorizes her to buy necessaries for her maintenance; or if a master, usually send his servant to buy goods for him upon credit, and the servant buy some things without the master's orders, yet the latter will be liable upon the implied authority. Show. 95; Pal. on Ag. 137 to 146.
10. 3. In considering in what manner the authority is to be executed, it will be necessary to examine, 1. By whom the authority must be executed. 2. In what manner. 3. In what time.
11. 1. A delegated authority can be executed only by the person to whom it is given, for the confidence being personal, cannot be assigned to a stranger. 1 Roll. Ab. 330 2 Roll. Ab. 9 9 Co. 77 b .; 9 Ves. 236, 251 3 Mer. R. 237; 2 M. & S. 299, 301.
12. An authority given to two cannot be executed by one. Co. Litt. 112 b, 181 b. And an authority given to three jointly and separately, is not, in general, well executed by two. Co. Litt. 181 b; sed vide 1 Roll. Abr. 329, 1, 5; Com. Dig. Attorney, C 8 3 Pick. R. 232; 2 Pick. R. 345; 12 Mass. R. 185; 6 Pick. R. 198; 6 John. R. 39; Story, Ag. §42. These rules apply to on authority of a private nature, which must be executed by all to whom it is given; and not to a power of a public nature, which may be executed by all to whom majority. 9 Watts, R. 466; 5 Bin. 484, 5; 9 S, & R. 99. 2. When the authority is particular, it must in general be strictly pursued, or it will be void, unless the variance be merely circumstantial. Co. Litt. 49 b, 303, b; 6 T. R. 591; 2 H. Bl. 623 Co. Lit. 181 , b; 1 Tho. Co. Lit. 852.
13. 2. As to the form to be observed in the execution of an authority, it is a general rule that an act done under a power of attorney must be done in the name Of the person who gives a power, and not in the attorney's name. 9 Co. 76, 77. It has been holden that the name of the attorney is not requisite. 1 W. & S. 328, 332; Moor, pl. 1106; Str. 705; 2 East, R. 142; Moor, 818; Paley on Ag. by Lloyd, 175; Story on Ag. §146 T 9 Ves. 236: 1 Y. & J. 387; 2 M. & S. 299; 4 Campb. R. 184; 2 Cox, R. 84; 9 Co. R. 75; 6 John. R. 94; 9 John. Pi,. 334; 10 Wend. R. 87; 4 Mass. R. 595; 2 Kent, Com. 631, 3d ed. But it matters not in what words this is done, if it sufficiently appear to be in the name of the principal, as, for A B, (the principal,) C D, (the attorney,) which has been held to be sufficient. See 15 Serg. & R. 55; 11 Mass. R. 97; 22 Pick. R. 168; 12 Mass. R. 237 9 Mass. 335; 16 Mass. R. 461; 1 Cowen, 513; 3 Wend. 94; Story, Ag. §§154,275, 278, 395; Story on P. N., §69; 2 East, R. 142; 7 Watt's R. 121 6 John. R. 94. But see contra, Bac. Ab. Leases, J 10; 9 Co, 77; l Hare & Wall. Sel. Dec. 426.
14. 3. The execution musr take place during the continuance, of the authority, which is determined either by revocation, or performance of the commission.
15. In general, an authority is revocable, unless it be given as a security, or it be coupled with an interest. 3 Watts & Serg. 14; 4 Campb. N. P. 272; 7 Ver. 28; 2 Kent's Com. 506; 8 Wheat. 203; 2 Cowen, 196; 2 Esp. N. P. Cases, 565; Bac. Abr. h. t. The revocation (q. v.) is either express or implied; when it is express and made known to the person authorized, the authority is at an end; the revocation is implied when the principal dies, or, if a female, marries; or the subject of the authority is destroyed, as if a man have authority to sell my house, and it is destroyed by fire or to buy for me a horse, and before the execution of the authority, the horse dies.
16. When once the agent has exercised all the authority given to him, the authority is at an end.
17. 4. An authority is to be so construed as to include all necessary or usual means of executing it with effect 2 H. Bl. 618; 1 Roll. R. 390; Palm. 394 10 Ves. 441; 6 Serg. & R. 149; Com'. Dig. Attorney, C 15; 4 Campb. R. 163 Story on Ag. 58 to 142; 1 J. J. Marsh. R. 293 5 Johns. R. 58 1 Liv. on Ag. 103, 4 and when the agent acts, avowedly as such, within his authority, he is not personally responsible . Pal. on Ag. 4, 5. Vide, generally, 3 Vin. Ab. 416; Bac. Ab. h. f.; 1 Salk. 95 Com. Dig. h. t., and the titles there referred to. 1 Roll. Ab. 330 2 Roll. Ab. 9 Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t. and the articles, Attorney; Agency; Agent; Principal.
The right and power which an officer has in the exercise of a public function to compel obedience to his lawful commands. A judge, for example, has authority to enforce obedience to his not being correct. Merlin, Repertoire, mot Authentique.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 1st edition, 1891
Wex Legal Dictionary
1) A power to act or to order others to act. Often one person or entity gives another the authority to act, as an employer to an employee, a principal to an agent, a corporation to its officers, or a government to an agency. 2) A court decision used to make a point or support an argument.
Statements about the law that come from unofficial commendators without authority to set legal rules in the relevant jurisdiction. Common examples include law-review articles and treatises. Although secondary authority may be persuasive, it is never mandatory.
An agent's power to act on behalf of a principal, even though not expressly or impliedly granted. This power arises only if a third party reasonably infers, from the principal's conduct, that the principal granted such power to the agent. The idea of apparent authority protects third parties who would otherwise incur losses if the agent's signature did not bind the principal after reasonable observers thought that it would.
An agent's power to act on behalf of a principal, explicitly granted by an agreement between the agent and principal.
An agent's power to act on behalf of a principal, because such power was expressly or impliedly conferred.
An agent's power to act on behalf of a principal, even though not expressly or impliedly granted. This power arises only if required for the agent to exercise some actual authority granted by the same principal. Thus, if a principal grants power to do X, and X requires doing Y, then the agent acquires inherent authority to do Y on behalf of the principal.
Statements about the law that come directly from a legislature, a court, or another body with official capacity to issue or clarify rules for its jurisdiction. Primary authority is always mandatory in disputes where it governs.
Power that is wide-ranging, broadly construed, and often limitless for all practical purposes. When used with respect to public officials, the more popular term is plenary power.
An agent's power to act on behalf of a principal, intentionally granted by the principal as a result of the principal's conduct, but without an express agreement. Failure to object after a prior exercise of such power may give rise to implied authority.
Statements about the law that are binding on a court. Mandatory authority often comes from legislatures or higher courts.
Statements that are relevant to a legal dispute, but not binding on the court.
Argumentum ab impossibili plurmum valet in lege.
An argument deduced from authority great avails in law.
Argumentum ab authoritate est fortissimum in lege.
An argument drawn from authority is the strongest in law.
Boni judicis est ampliare jurisdictionem.
It is the part of a good judge to enlarge his jurisdiction; that, his remedial authority.
Delegata potestas non potest delegari.
A delegated authority cannot be again delegated.
Mandatarius terminos sobi positos transgredi non potest.
A mandatory cannot exceed the bounds of his authority.
Maxime ita dicta quia maxima ejus dignitas et certissima auctoritas, atque quod maximè omnibus probetur.
A maxim is so called because its dignity is chiefest, and its authority most certain, and because universally approved by all.
Quicquid judicis auctoritati subjictur, novitati nonsubjiclur.
Whatever is subject to the authority of a judge, is not subject to novelty.
Ratio et auctoritas duo clarisima mundi limina.
Reason and authority are the two brightest lights in the world.
Ubi non est condendi auctoritas, ibi non est parendi necessitas.
Where there is no authority to enforce, there is no authority to obey.
The 'nations,' as they are called, with whom our pretended ambassadors, secretaries, presidents, and senators profess to make treaties, are as much myths as our own. On general principles of law and reason, there are no such 'nations.' ... Our pretended treaties, then, being made with no legitimate or bona fide nations, or representatives of nations, and being made, on our part, by persons who have no legitimate authority to act for us, have intrinsically no more validity than a pretended treaty made by the Man in the Moon with the king of the Pleiades.
But this theory of our government is wholly different from the practical fact. The fact is that the government, like a highwayman, says to a man: 'Your money, or your life.' And many, if not most, taxes are paid under the compulsion of that threat. The government does not, indeed, waylay a man in a lonely place, spring upon him from the roadside, and, holding a pistol to his head, proceed to rifle his pockets. But the robbery is none the less a robbery on that account; and it is far more dastardly and shameful. The highwayman takes solely upon himself the responsibility, danger, and crime of his own act. He does not pretend that he has any rightful claim to your money, or that he intends to use it for your own benefit. He does not pretend to be anything but a robber. He has not acquired impudence enough to profess to be merely a 'protector,' and that he takes men's money against their will, merely to enable him to 'protect' those infatuated travellers, who feel perfectly able to protect themselves, or do not appreciate his peculiar system of protection. He is too sensible a man to make such professions as these. Furthermore, having taken your money, he leaves you, as you wish him to do. He does not persist in following you on the road, against your will; assuming to be your rightful 'sovereign,' on account of the 'protection' he affords you. He does not keep 'protecting' you, by commanding you to bow down and serve him; by requiring you to do this, and forbidding you to do that; by robbing you of more money as often as he finds it for his interest or pleasure to do so; and by branding you as a rebel, a traitor, and an enemy to your country, and shooting you down without mercy, if you dispute his authority, or resist his demands. He is too much of a gentleman to be guilty of such impostures, and insults, and villanies as these. In short, he does not, in addition to robbing you, attempt to make you either his dupe or his slave.
If it be said that the consent of the strongest party, in a nation, is all that is necessary to justify the establishment of a government that shall have authority over the weaker party, it may be answered that the most despotic governments in the world rest upon that very principle, viz: the consent of the strongest party.
Alexis de Tocqueville:First. That two men have no more natural right to exercise any kind of authority over one, than one has to exercise the same authority over two. A man’s natural rights are his own, against the whole world; and any infringement of them is equally a crime, whether committed by one man, or by millions; whether committed by one man, calling himself a robber, (or by any other name indicating his true character,) or by millions, calling themselves a government.
John Locke:[Tyrannical] power is absolute, minute, regular, provident and mild. It would be like the authority of a parent if, like that authority, its object was to prepare men for manhood; but it seeks, on the contrary, to keep them in perpetual childhood: it is well content that the people should rejoice, provided they think of nothing but rejoicing. For their happiness such a government willingly labors, but it chooses to be the sole agent and the only arbiter of that happiness; it provides for their security, foresees and supplies their necessities, facilitates their pleasures, manages their principal concerns, directs their industry, regulates the descent of property, and subdivides their inheritances: what remains, but to spare them all the care of thinking and all the trouble of living?
Thomas Babington Macaulay:All men by nature are equal in that equal right that every man hath to his natural freedom, without being subjected to the will or authority of any other man; being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions.
Benjamin Franklin:American democracy must be a failure because it places the supreme authority in the hands of the poorest and most ignorant part of the society.
Henry Steele Commager:It is the first responsibility of every citizen to question authority.
Justice Theophilus Parsons:Men in authority will always think that criticism of their policies is dangerous. They will always equate their policies with patriotism, and find criticism subversive.
Alan Watts:If a juror accepts as the law that which the judge states, then the juror has accepted the exercise of absolute authority of a government employee and has surrendered a power and right that once was the citizen's safeguard of liberty.
Anne Bradstreet:Many people never grow up. They stay all their lives with a passionate need for external authority and guidance, pretending not to trust their own judgment.
Authority without wisdom is like a heavy axe without an edge, fitter to bruise than polish.
The National Encyclopedia, Edited by Henry Suzzallo, 1944
Saving the worst for last..."The most general and appropriate use of the flag is as a symbol of authority and power
Rudolph W. Giuliani:
What we don't see is that freedom is not a concept in which people can do anything they want, be anything they can be. Freedom is about authority. Freedom is about the willingness of every single human being to cede to lawful authority a great deal of discretion about what you do.