Money

Comprehending laws and contracts is impossible, unless we first learn the meaning of the words and phrases they contain.

Moderator: notmartha

Post Reply
User avatar
notmartha
Posts: 751
Joined: Mon Jul 22, 2013 1:16 pm

Money

Post by notmartha » Fri Dec 02, 2016 2:30 pm

BIBLICAL REFERENCES

KJV References

Kesep, Hebrew Strong's #3701, is used 403 times in the Old Testament. It is translated as silver (287), money (112), price (3), silverlings (1). It is translated as “money” in the following verses:
Genesis 23:8-9 - And he communed with them, saying, If it be your mind that I should bury my dead out of my sight; hear me, and intreat for me to Ephron the son of Zohar, That he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he hath, which is in the end of his field; for as much money as it is worth he shall give it me for a possession of a buryingplace amongst you.
Genesis 23:13 - And he spake unto Ephron in the audience of the people of the land, saying, But if thou wilt give it, I pray thee, hear me: I will give thee money for the field; take it of me, and I will bury my dead there.
Genesis 23:16 - And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver, which he had named in the audience of the sons of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the merchant.
Genesis 47:14-20 - And Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the corn which they bought: and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh's house. And when money failed in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, all the Egyptians came unto Joseph, and said, Give us bread: for why should we die in thy presence? for the money faileth. And Joseph said, Give your cattle; and I will give you for your cattle, if money fail. And they brought their cattle unto Joseph: and Joseph gave them bread in exchange for horses, and for the flocks, and for the cattle of the herds, and for the asses: and he fed them with bread for all their cattle for that year. When that year was ended, they came unto him the second year, and said unto him, We will not hide it from my lord, how that our money is spent; my lord also hath our herds of cattle; there is not ought left in the sight of my lord, but our bodies, and our lands: Wherefore shall we die before thine eyes, both we and our land? buy us and our land for bread, and we and our land will be servants unto Pharaoh: and give us seed, that we may live, and not die, that the land be not desolate. And Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh; for the Egyptians sold every man his field, because the famine prevailed over them: so the land became Pharaoh's.
Exodus 21:20-21 - And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand; he shall be surely punished. Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished: for he is his money.
Judges 17:4 - Yet he restored the money unto his mother; and his mother took two hundred shekels of silver, and gave them to the founder, who made thereof a graven image and a molten image: and they were in the house of Micah.
2 Kings 15:18-20 - And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD: he departed not all his days from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin. And Pul the king of Assyria came against the land: and Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver, that his hand might be with him to confirm the kingdom in his hand. And Menahem exacted the money of Israel, even of all the mighty men of wealth, of each man fifty shekels of silver, to give to the king of Assyria. So the king of Assyria turned back, and stayed not there in the land.
2 Kings 23:35 - And Jehoiakim gave the silver and the gold to Pharaoh; but he taxed the land to give the money according to the commandment of Pharaoh: he exacted the silver and the gold of the people of the land, of every one according to his taxation, to give it unto Pharaohnechoh.
Ecclesiastes 10:19 - A feast is made for laughter, and wine maketh merry: but money answereth all things.
Isaiah 55:1-2 - Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money; come ye, buy, and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price. Wherefore do ye spend money for that which is not bread? and your labour for that which satisfieth not? hearken diligently unto me, and eat ye that which is good, and let your soul delight itself in fatness.
Qeśîṭâ, Hebrew Strong's #7192, is used 3 times in the Old Testament. It is translated as piece of money (2), piece of silver (1). It is translated as “piece of money” in the following verses:
Genesis 33:19 - And he bought a parcel of a field, where he had spread his tent, at the hand of the children of Hamor, Shechem's father, for an hundred pieces of money.
Job 42:11 - Then came there unto him all his brethren, and all his sisters, and all they that had been of his acquaintance before, and did eat bread with him in his house: and they bemoaned him, and comforted him over all the evil that the LORD had brought upon him: every man also gave him a piece of money, and every one an earring of gold.

Statēr, Greek Strong's #4715, is used 1 time in the New Testament. It is translated as “piece of money” in the following verse:
Matthew 17:27 - Notwithstanding, lest we should offend them, go thou to the sea, and cast an hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up; and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of money: that take, and give unto them for me and thee.
Nomisma, Greek Strong's #3546, is used 1 time in the New Testament. It is translated as “money” in the following verse:
Matthew 22:19 - Shew me the tribute money. And they brought unto him a penny.
Argyrion, Greek Strong's #694, is used 20 times in the New Testament. It is translated as money (11), piece of silver (5), silver (3), silver piece (1). It is translated as “money” in the following verses:
Matthew 28:12-15 - And when they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large money unto the soldiers, Saying, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept. And if this come to the governor's ears, we will persuade him, and secure you. So they took the money, and did as they were taught: and this saying is commonly reported among the Jews until this day.
Acts 7:16 - And were carried over into Sychem, and laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum of money of the sons of Emmor the father of Sychem.
Chalkos, Greek Strong's #5475, is used 5 times in the New Testament. It is translated as brass (3), money (2). It is translated as “money” in the following verses:
Mark 6:8 - And commanded them that they should take nothing for their journey, save a staff only; no scrip, no bread, no money in their purse:
Mark 12:41 - And Jesus sat over against the treasury, and beheld how the people cast money into the treasury: and many that were rich cast in much.
Kerma, Greek Strong's #2772, is used 1 time in the New Testament, translated as “money” in the following verse:
John 2:15 - And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables;
Chrēma, Greek Strong's #5536, is used 7 times in the New Testament. It is translated as money (4), riches (3). It is translated as “money” in the following verses:
Acts 4:37 - Having land, sold it, and brought the money, and laid it at the apostles' feet.
Acts 8:18-20 - And when Simon saw that through laying on of the apostles' hands the Holy Ghost was given, he offered them money, Saying, Give me also this power, that on whomsoever I lay hands, he may receive the Holy Ghost. But Peter said unto him, Thy money perish with thee, because thou hast thought that the gift of God may be purchased with money.
Philargyria, Greek Strong's #5365, is used 1 time in the New Testament, translated as “love of money” in the following verse:
1 Timothy 6:9-10 - But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition. For the love of money is the root of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with many sorrows.
DEFINITIONS

Webster’s Dictionary, 1828
MONEY, noun plural moneys.

1. Coin; stamped metal; any piece of metal, usually gold, silver or copper, stamped by public authority, and used as the medium of commerce. We sometimes give the name of money to other coined metals, and to any other material which rude nations use a medium of trade. But among modern commercial nations, gold, silver and copper are the only metals used for this purpose. Gold and silver, containing great value in small compass, and being therefore of easy conveyance, and being also durable and little liable to diminution by use, are the most convenient metals for coin or money which is the representative of commodities of all kinds, of lands, and of every thing that is capable of being transferred in commerce.

2. Bank notes or bills of credit issued by authority, and exchangeable for coin or redeemable, are also called money; as such notes in modern times represent coin, and are used as a substitute for it. If a man pays in hand for goods in bank notes which are current, he is said to pay in ready money

3. Wealth; affluence.

MONEY can neither open new avenues to pleasure, nor block up the passages of anguish.
Bouvier’s Dictionary of Law, 1856:
MONEY.

1. Gold, silver, and some other less precious metals, in the progress of civilization and commerce, have become the common standards of value; in order to avoid the delay and inconvenience of regulating their weight and quality whenever passed, the governments of the civilized world have caused them to be manufactured in certain portions, and marked with a Stamp which attests their value; this is called money. 1 Inst. 207; 1 Hale's Hist. 188; 1 Pardess. n. 22; Dom. Lois civ. liv. prel. t. 3, s. 2, n. 6.

2. For many purposes, bank notes; (q. v.) 1 Y. & J, 380; 3 Mass. 405; 14 Mass. 122; 2 N. H. Rep. 333; 17 Mass. 560; 7 Cowen, 662; 4 Pick. 74; Bravt. 24; a check; 4 Bing. 179; S. C. 13 E. C. L. R. 295; and negotiable notes; 3 Mass. 405; will be so considered. To support a count for money had and received, the receipt by the defendant of bank notes, promissory notes: 3 Mass. 405; 3 Shepl. 285; 9 Pick. 93; John. 132; credit in account, in the books of a third person; 3 Campb. 199; or any chattel, is sufficient; 4 Pick. 71; 17 Mass. 560; and will be treated as money. See 7 Wend. 311; 8 Wend. 641; 7 S. & R. 246; 8 T. R. 687; 3 B. & P. 559; 1 Y. & J. 380.

3. The constitution of the United States has vested in congress the power "to coin money, and regulate the value thereof." Art. 1, s. 8.

4. By virtue of this constitutional authority, the following provisions have been enacted by congress.
1. Act of April 2, 1792, 1 Story's L. U. S. 229.
§9. That there shall be from time to time, struck and coined at the said mint, coins of gold, silver, and copper, of the following denominations, values, and descriptions, viz: Eagles; each to be of the value of ten dollars, or units, and to contain two hundred and forty seven grains and four eighths of a grain of pure, or two hundred and seventy grains of standard, gold. Half eagles; each to be of the value of five dollars, and to contain one hundred and twenty three grains and six eighths of a pure, or one hundred and thirty five grains of standard gold. Quarter eagles; each to be of the value of two dollars and a half dollar, and to contain sixty one grains and seven eighths of a grain of pure, or sixty seven grains and four eighths of a grain of standard gold. Dollars, or units; each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar, as the same is now current, and to contain three hundred and seventy one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver. Half dollars; each to be of half the value of the dollar or unit, and to contain one hundred and eighty five grains and ten sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or two hundred and eight grains of standard, silver. Quarter dollars; each to be of one fourth the value of the dollar, or unit, and to contain ninety two grains and thirteen sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or one hundred and four grains of standard, silver. Dimes; each to be of the value of one tenth of a dollar, or unit, and to contain thirty seven grains and two sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or forty one grains and three fifth parts of a grain of standard, silver. Half dimes; each to be of the value of one twentieth of dollar, and to contain eighteen grains and nine sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or twenty grains and four fifth parts of a grain of standard, silver. Cents; each to be of the value of the one hundredth part of a dollar, and to contain eleven pennyweights of copper. Half cents; each to be of the value of half a cent, and to contain five pennyweights and, a half a pennyweight of copper.

5. §10. That upon the said coins, respectively, there shall be the following devises and legends, namely: Upon one side of each of the said coins there shall be an impression emblematic of liberty, with an inscription of the word liberty, and the year of the coinage; and, upon the reverse of each of the gold and silver coins, there shall be the figure or representation of an eagle, with this inscription, "United States of America:" and, upon the reverse of each of the copper coins there shall be an inscription which shall express the denomination of the piece, namely, cent or half cent, as the case may require.

6. §11. That the proportional value of gold to silver in all coins which shall, by law, be current as money within the United States, shall be as fifteen to one, according to quantity in weight, of pure gold or pure silver; that is to say, every fifteen pounds weight of pure silver shall be of equal value in all payments, with one pound weight of pure gold; and so in proportion, as to any greater or less quantities of the respective metals.

7. §12. That the standard for all gold coins of the United States, shall be eleven parts fine to one part alloy: and accordingly, that eleven parts in twelve, of the entire weight of each of the said coins, shall consist of pure gold, and the remaining one twelfth part of alloy; and the said alloy shall be composed of silver and copper in such proportions, not exceeding one half silver, as shall be found convenient; to be regulated by the director of the mint for the time being, With the approbation of the president of the United States, until further provision shall be made by law. And to the end that the necessary information may be had in order to the making of such further provision, it shall be the duty of the director of the mint, at the expiration of a year after commencing the operations of the said mint, to report to congress the practice thereof during the said year, touching the composition of the alloy of the said gold coins, the reasons for such practice, and the experiments and observations which shall have been made concerning the effects of different proportions of silver and copper in the said alloy.

8. §13. That the standard for all silver coins of the United States, shall be one thousand four hundred and eighty five parts fine to one hundred and seventy nine parts alloy; and, accordingly, that one thousand four hundred and eighty five parts in one thousand six hundred and sixty four parts, of the entire weight of each of the said coins, shall consist of pure silver, and the remaining one hundred and seventy nine parts of alloy, which alloy shall be wholly of copper.

9. 2. Act of June 28, 1834, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story's Laws U. S. 2376.
§1. That the gold coins of the United States shall contain the following quantities of metal, that is to say: each eagle shall contain two hundred and thirty two grains of pure gold, and two hundred and fifty eight grains of standard gold; each half eagle, one hundred and sixteen grains of pure gold, and one hundred and twenty nine grains of standard gold; each quarter eagle shall contain fifty eight grains of pure gold, and sixty four and a half grains of standard gold; every such eagle shall be of the value of ten dollars; every such half eagle shall be of the value of five dollars; and every such quarter eagle shall be of the value of two dollars and fifty cents; and the said gold coins shall be receivable in all payments, when of full weight, according to their respective values; and when of less than full weight, at less values, proportioned to their respective actual weights.

10. §2. That all standard gold or silver deposited for coinage after the thirty first of July next, shall be paid for in coin under the direction of the secretary of the treasury, within five days from the making of such deposit, deducting from the amount of said deposit of gold and silver, one half of one per centum: Provided, That no deduction shall be made unless said advance be required by such depositor within forty days.

11. §3. That all gold coins of the United States, minted anterior to the thirty first day of July next, shall be receivable in all payments at the rate of ninety four and eight tenths of a cent per pennyweight.

12. 3. Act of January 18, 1837, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story's Laws U. S. 2524.
§9. That of the silver coins, the dollar shall be of the weight of four hundred and twelve and one half grains; the half dollar of the weight of two hundred and six and one fourth grains; the quarter dollar of the weight of one hundred and three and one eighth grains; the dime, or tenth part of a dollar, of the weight of forty one and a quarter grains; and the half dime, or twentieth part of a dollar, of the weight of twenty grains, and five eighths of a grain. And that dollars, half dollars, and quarter dollars, dimes and half dimes, shall be legal tenders of payment, according to their nominal value, for any sums whatever.

13. §10. That of the gold coins, the weight of the eagle shall be two hundred and fifty eight grains; that of the half eagle, one hundred and twenty nine grains; and that of the quarter eagle, sixty four and one half grain;. And that for all sums whatever, the eagle shall be a legal tender of payment for ten dollars; the half eagle for five dollars and the quarter eagle for two and a half dollars.

14. §11. That the silver coins heretofore issued at the mint of the United States, and the gold coins issued since the thirty first day of July, one thousand eight hundred and thirty four, shall continue to be legal tenders of payment for their nominal values, on the same terms as if they were of the coinage provided for by this act.

15. §12. That of the copper coins, the weight of the cent shall be one hundred and sixty eight grains, and the weight of the half cent eighty four grains. And the cent shall be considered of the value of one hundredth part of a dollar, and the half cent of the value of one two hundredth part of a dollar.

16. §13. That upon the coins struck at the mint, there shall be the following devices and legends; upon one side of each of said coins, there shall be an impression emblematic of liberty, with an inscription of the word LIBERTY, and the year of the coinage; and upon the reverse of each of the gold and silver coins, there shall be the figure or representation of an eagle, with the inscription United States of America, and a designation of the value of the coin; but on the reverse of the dime and half dime, cent and half cent, the figure of the eagle shall be omitted.

17. §38. That all acts or parts of acts heretofore passed, relating to the mint and coins of the United States, which are inconsistent with the provisions of this act, be, and the same are hereby repealed.

18. 4. Act of March 3, 1825, 3 Story's L. U. S. 2005.
§20. That, if any person or persons shall falsely make, forge, or counterfeit, or cause or procure to be falsely made, forged, or counterfeited, or willingly aid or assist in falsely making, forging, or counterfeiting any coin, in the resemblance or similitude of the gold or silver coin, which has been, or hereafter may be, coined at the mint of the United States; or in the resemblance or similitude of any foreign gold or silver coin which by law now is, or hereafter may be made current in the United States; or shall pass, utter, publish, or sell, or attempt to pass, utter, publish, or sell, or bring into the United States, from any foreign place, with intent to pass, utter, publish, or sell, as true, any such false, forged, or counterfeited coin, knowing the same to be false, forged, or counterfeited, with intent to defraud any body politic, or corporate, or any other person or persons, whatsoever; every person, so offending, shall be deemed guilty of felony, and shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by fine, not exceeding five thousand dollars, and by imprisonment, and confinement to hard labor, not exceeding ten years, according to the, aggravation of the offence.

19. §21. That, if any person or persons shall falsely make, forge, or counterfeit, or cause or procure to be falsely made, forged or counterfeited, or willingly aid or assist in falsely making, forging or counterfeiting any coin, in the resemblance or similitude of any copper coin, which has been, or hereafter may be, coined at the mint of the United States; or shall pass, utter, publish, or sell, or attempt to pass, utter, publish or sell, or bring into the United States, from any foreign place, with intent to pass, utter, publish, or sell as true, any such false, forged, or counterfeited coin, with intent to defraud any body politic, or corporate, or any other person or persons whatsoever; every person so offending, shall be deemed guilty of felony, and shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by fine, not exeeeding one thousand dollars, and by imprisonment, and confinement, to hard labor, not exceeding three years. See generally, 1 J. J. Marsh. 202; 1 Bibb, 330; 2 Wash. 282; 3 Call, 557; 5 S. & R. 48; 1 Dall. 124; 2 Dana, 298; 3 Conn. 534; 4 Harr. & McHen. 199.

20. 5. Act of March 3, 1849, Minot's Statutes at Large of U. S. 397.

21. §1. That there shall be, from time to time, struck and coined at the mint of the United States, and the branches thereof, conformably in all respects to law, (except that on the reverse of the gold dollar the figure of the eagle shall be omitted), and conformably in all respects to the standard for gold coins now established by law, coins of gold of the following denominations and values, viz.: double eagles, each to be of the value of twenty dollars, or units, and gold dollars, each to be of the value of one dollar, or unit.

22. §2. That, for all sums whatever, the double eagle shall be a legal tender for twenty dollars, and the gold dollar shall be a legal tender for one dollar.

23. §3. That all laws now in force in relation to the coins of the United States, and the striking and coining the same, shall, so far as applicable, have full force and effect in relation to the coins herein authorized, whether, the said laws are penal or otherwise; and whether they are for preventing counterfeiting or debasement, for protecting the currency, for regulating and guarding the process of striking and coining, and the preparations therefor, or for the security of the coin, or for any other purpose.

24. §4. That, in adjusting the weights of gold coins henceforward, the following deviations from the standard weight shall not be exceeded in any of the single pieces; namely, in the double eagle, the eagle, and the half eagle, one half of a grain, and in the quarter eagle, and gold dollar, one quarter of a grain; and that, in weighing a large number of pieces together, when delivered from the chief coiner to the treasurer, and from the treasurer to the depositors, the deviation from the standard weight shall not exceed three pennyweights in one thousand double eagles; two pennyweights in one thousand, eagles; one and one half pennyweights in one thousand half eagle;; one pennyweight in one thousand quarter eagles; and one half of a pennyweight in one thousand gold dollars.

25. 6. Act of March 3, 1851. Minot's Statutes at Large, U. S. 591.

26. §11. That from and after the passage of this act, it shall be lawful to coin at the mint of the United States and its branches, a piece of the denomination and legal value of three cents, or three hundredths of a dollar, to be composed of three fourths silver and one fourth copper and to weigh twelve grains and three eighths of a grain; that the said coin shall bear such devices as shall be conspicuously different from those of the other silver coins, and of the gold dollar, but having the inscription United States of America, and its denomination and date; and that it shall be a legal tender in payment of debts for all sums of thirty cents and under. And that no ingots shall be used for the coinage of the three cent pieces herein authorized, of which the quality differs more than five thousandths from the legal standard; and that in adjusting the weight of the said coin, the following deviations from the standard weight shall not be exceeded, namely, one half of a grain in the single piece, and one pennyweight in a thousand pieces.

Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and of the Political History of the United States, vol. 2 John Joseph Lalor, 1881
Definition of money.
Money is a substance possessing attributes which fit it to serve as a common measure of value, and which make it, in the estimation of mankind, an equivalent for all other kinds of property. We can conceive of other measures of value which are not in themselves valuable; as, for instance, a scale of prices in which all kinds of property are compared with each other, showing how many sheep ought to be given for a horse, how many pounds of coffee are equal to a barrel of flour, etc. But such a scale of prices would not be an equivalent. It would not be rendering an equivalent if I should obtain a beefsteak from my butcher, and tender him in return nothing but a scale of comparative prices, showing him how much sugar he ought to be able to procure in exchange for a beefsteak. Again: we can conceive of other equivalents which are not good measures of value; we have already described some of them. The house in which I live is the equivalent of some thousands of bushels of wheat; but it is not a good measure of value, because it is not divisible or portable, and because it is liable to decay and eventually to become worthless. It is a mistake to say that money is only a sign or representative of value. This is true of the various substitutes for money; but it is not true of money itself, whether the kind of money employed is a piece of gold, a beaver skin, a block of salt, or a dried codfish. Each of these things possesses its own utility in the way of serving human wants. The piece of gold serves human wants by answering the need of men for an instrument of exchange and a measure of value as effectually as a beaver skin does by protecting his body from the cold. True, you can not eat gold, or wear it on your back, neither can you eat or wear a paving stone; yet the paving stone is valuable in the way of promoting human intercourse and traffic, and so is the gold. It would be just as absurd to say that a paving stone is a sign of value as to say that gold is a sign of value. It is sometimes said, that, if mankind would come to an agreement to accept some other thing as a universal equivalent and measure of value, that other thing would be just as good money as gold. The answer is, that mankind will not come to any such agreement. Mankind have already come to an agreement upon this subject, not by treaty, not by convention, not by the action of their governments, but by tacit consent founded upon experience. They have brought into requisition various substitutes for money which are of vast and increasing advantage to trade and industry; and so far as these have come into use by tacit consent, founded upon experience, they will prove lasting and beneficial. None of these substitutes, however, possess the character of equivalency, nor do any of them serve as measures of value. The bill of exchange, the bank check, the bank note, which I give to my creditor, is in itself nothing but a piece of paper with ink marks upon it. Its original value as paper is destroyed by the ink marks. It gives to him the right to obtain a sum of money, or goods equivalent to that sum; but it is not money. We are not now stickling about the names of things, and drawing distinctions where there is no difference. As the subject of this paper is money and its substitutes, it is necessary, first, to obtain a clear idea of what money is, in order that we may the better obtain an idea of what its substitutes are, and how great a service they have rendered, and are capable of rendering, to human society.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 1st Edition, 1890
MONEY.

A general, indefinite term for the measure and representative of value; currency; the circulating medium: cash.

“Money” is a generic term, and embraces every description of coin or bank-notes recognized by common consent as a representative of value in effecting exchanges of property or payment of debts. 5 Humph. 140.

Money is used in a specific and also in a general and more comprehensive sense. In its specific sense, it means what is coined or stamped by public authority, and has its determinate value fixed by governments. In its more comprehensive and general sense, it means wealth—the representative of commodities of all kinds, of lands, and of every thing that can be transferred in commerce. 31 T61. 10.

In its strict technical sense, “money” means coined metal, usually gold or silver, upon which the government stamp has been impressed to indicate its value. In its more popular sense, “money” means any currency, tokens, bank-notes, or other circulating medium in general use as the representative of value. 45 Tex. 305.

The term “moneys” is not of more extensive signification then “money,” and means only cash, and not things in action. 14 Johns. 1; 1 Johns. Ch. 231.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 5th Edition, 1979
(1)In usual and ordinary acceptation it means coins and paper currency used as circulating medium of exchange, and does not embrace notes, bonds, evidence of debt, or other personal or real estate;
(2) a medium of exchange authorized or adopted by a domestic or foreign government as part of its currency [then it refers to UCC 1-201(24) ]
Black’s Law Dictionary, 7th Edition, 1999
The medium of exchange authorized or adopted by a government as part of its currency [then it refers to UCC 1-201(24]
UCC § 1-201. General Definitions.
(24) "Money" means a medium of exchange currently authorized or adopted by a domestic or foreign government. The term includes a monetary unit of account established by an intergovernmental organization or by agreement between two or more countries.
MAXIMS

Moneta est justum medium et mensura rerum commutabilium, nam per meduim monetae fit omnium rerum conveniens, et justa aestimatio.
Money is the just medium and measure of all commutable things, for, by the medium of money, a convenient and just estimation of all things is made.
Reprobata pecunia liberat solventum.
Money refused liberates the debtor.
Res per pecuniam aestimatur, et non pecunia per res.
The value of a thing is estimated by its worth in money, and the value of money is not estimated by reference to one thing.
Sapientia legis nummario pretio non est aestemanda.
The wisdom of law cannot be valued by money.
Verba currentis monetae, tempus solutionis designat.
The words current money, refer to the time of payment.
QUOTES

Voltaire, in 1729 said:
"Paper money eventually returns to its intrinsic value -- zero."

American Mercury Magazine, December 1957, pg. 92
"The invisible Money Power is working to control and enslave mankind. It financed communism, Fascism, Marxism, Zionism and Socialism. All of these are directed to making the United States a member of World Government."
Dick Armey said:
"Three groups spend other people's money: children, thieves, politicians. All three need supervision."
Sir Francis Bacon said:
"If money be not thy servant, it will be thy master. The covetous man cannot so properly be said to possess wealth, as that may be said to possess him."
George Bancroft said:
"Madison, agreeing with the journal of the convention, records that the grant of power to emit bills of credit was refused by a majority of more than four to one. The evidence is perfect; no power to emit paper money was granted to the legislature of the United States."
Napoleon Bonaparte said:
"When a government is dependent upon bankers for money, they and not the leaders of the government control the situation, since the hand that gives is above the hand that takes… Money has no motherland; financiers are without patriotism and without decency; their sole object is gain."
Stephen T. Byington, in 1895 said:
"No legal tender law is ever needed to make men take good money; its only use is to make them take bad money."
Mayer Amschel Rothschild said:
"Give me control of a nation's money and I care not who makes the laws."
William Hartman Woodin, US Secretary of Treasury under FDR in 1933, said:
"Where would we be if we had I.O.U.'s scrip and certificates floating all around the country?" Instead he decided to "issue currency against the sound assets of the banks. [As opposed to issuing currency against gold.] The Federal Reserve Act lets us print all we'll need. And it won't frighten the people. It won't look like stage money. It'll be money that looks like real money."
Post Reply