Polis, Greek Strong's #4172, is translated as “city” 164 times in the New Testament. From this same root is derived:
Politarchēs, Greek Strong's #4173, is translated as “ruler of the city” 2 times in the New Testament:
Politeia, Greek Strong's #4174, meaning citizenship; concretely a community; commonwealth, freedomActs 17:6-9 - And when they found them not, they drew Jason and certain brethren unto the rulers of the city, crying, These that have turned the world upside down are come hither also; Whom Jason hath received: and these all do contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, one Jesus. And they troubled the people and the rulers of the city, when they heard these things. And when they had taken security of Jason, and of the other, they let them go.
Ephesians 2:12 - That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:
Politeuma, Greek Strong's #4175, meaning a community, i.e. (abstract) citizenship (figurative) conversation, is used 1 time in the New Testament. It is translated as “conversation” in the following verse:Acts 22:27-28 - Then the chief captain came, and said unto him, Tell me, art thou a Roman? He said, Yea. And the chief captain answered, With a great sum obtained I this freedom. And Paul said, But I was free born.
Notes from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, 1871:Philippians 3:20 - For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ:
Politeuomai, Greek Strong's #4176, meaning to behave as a citizen (figurative); let conversation be, live.[O]ur conversation -- rather, "our state" or "country"; our citizenship: our life as citizens. We are but pilgrims on earth; how then should we "mind earthly things?" Roman citizenship was then highly prized; how much more should the heavenly citizenship compare?
Acts 23:1 - And Paul, earnestly beholding the council, said, Men and brethren, I have lived in all good conscience before God until this day.
Politēs, Greek Strong's #4177, meaning a townsman; citizen is used 3 times in the New Testament. It is translated as “citizen” in the following verses:Philippians 1:27 - Only let your conversation be as it becometh the gospel of Christ: that whether I come and see you, or else be absent, I may hear of your affairs, that ye stand fast in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel;
Luke 15:15 - And he went and joined himself to a citizen of that country; and he sent him into his fields to feed swine.
Luke 19:14 - But his citizens hated him, and sent a message after him, saying, We will not have this man to reign over us.
DEFINITIONSActs 21:39 - But Paul said, I am a man which am a Jew of Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, a citizen of no mean city: and, I beseech thee, suffer me to speak unto the people.
Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language, 1828
Bouvier’s Dictionary of Law, 1856CITIZEN, noun
1. The native of a city, or an inhabitant who enjoys the freedom and privileges of the city in which he resides; the freeman of a city, as distinguished from a foreigner, or one not entitled to its franchises.
2. A townsman; a man of trade; not a gentleman.
3. An inhabitant; a dweller in any city, town or place.
4. In general sense, a native or permanent resident in a city or country; as the citizens of London or Philadelphia; the citizens of the United States.
5. In the United States, a person, native or naturalized, who has the privilege of exercising the elective franchise, or the qualifications which enable him to vote for rulers, and to purchase and hold real estate.
If the citizens of the United States should not be free and happy, the fault will be entirely their own.
CITIZEN, adjective Having the qualities of a citizen
CITIZENSHIP, noun The state of being vested with the rights and privileges of a citizen.
CITIZENIZE, verb transitive To make a citizen; to admit to the rights and privileges of a citizen.
Talleyrand was citizenized in Pennsylvania, when there in the form of an emigrant.
1. One who, under the constitution and laws of the United States, has a right to vote for representatives in congress, and other public officers, and who is qualified to fill offices in the gift of the people. In a more extended sense, under the word citizen, are included all white persons born in the United States, and naturalized persons born out of the same, who have not lost their right as such. This includes men, women, and children.
2. Citizens are either native born or naturalized. Native citizens may fill any office; naturalized citizens may be elected or appointed to any office under the constitution of the United States, except the office of president and vice president. The constitution provides, that " the citizens of each state shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states." Art. 4, s. 2.
3. All natives are not citizens of the United States; the descendants of the aborigines, and those of African origin, are not entitled to the rights of citizens. Anterior to the adoption of the constitution of the United States, each state had the right to make citizens of such persons as it pleased. That constitution does not authorize any but white persons to become citizens of the United States; and it must therefore be presumed that no one is a citizen who is not white. 1 Litt. R. 334; 10 Conn. R. 340; 1 Meigs, R. 331.
4. A citizen of the United States, residing in any state of the Union, is a citizen of that state.
The Century Dictionary, an Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language, 1895
citizen (sit'i-zn), n. and a
1. A native of a city or town, or one who enjoys the freedom and privileges of the city or town in which he resides ; a freeman of a city or town, as distinguished from a foreigner or one not entitled to its franchises.
I am a man which am a Jew of Tarsus, ... a citizen of no mean city. Acts xxl 39.
All inhabitants within these walls are not properly citizens, but only such as are called freemen.
Sir W. Raleiijh, Hist, World.
2. Any inhabitant of a city or town, as opposed to an inhabitant of a rural district ; a townsman.—
3. In a restricted sense, a person engaged in trade, as opposed to a person of birth and breeding.
Sweep on, you fat and greasy citizens ;
'Tis just the fashion : wherefore do you look
Upon that poor and broken bankrupt there?
Shak., As you Like it, ii. 1.
4. A member of the state or nation ; one bound to the state by the reciprocal obligation of allegiance on the one hand and protection on the other. Persons of the following classes are citizens of the United States : (1) Persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power (except untaxed Indians). This includes children of alien parents other than those of foreign ambassadors, etc. (2) Children born elsewhere to fathers who were, at the time of their birth, citizens at some time resident in the United States. (3) Naturalized persons, including some in effect naturalized by treaty, etc. (4) Women (though not born here nor naturalized) if not incapable of naturalization, and married to citizens. (5) Freedmen under the act of emancipation. (6) Indians born within the United States who have withdrawn from the tribal relation, entered civilized life, and are taxed. (7) Indians who have accepted lands allotted in severalty under the Dawes Bill (1887) ; but there may be a question whether they practically become citizens before their reservation is thrown open. A person may be a citizen of the United States without being a citizen of any particular State, as, for instance, an inhabitant of the District of Columbia. The two citizenships are distinct in legal contemplation, although one is usually held by any person who holds the other ; and practically, as a general rule, citizenship in a State consists of citizenship of the United States plus a domicile (that is, a fixed abode) in the State. The right to vote or hold office is not a test of citizenship, for minors and women are commonly citizens without those rights, and there are cases where aliens may hold office.
All persons born and naturalized In the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction therof, are citizens of the United States, and of the state wherein they reside. Const. of U.S., 14th Amendment
5. A private person, as opposed to a civil official or a soldier : as, a police officer in citizen's dress—Natural-born citizen, one who is a member of a state or nation by virtue of birth. Whether it is necessary to this that the father should be a citizen is disputed ; those jurists who follow the doctrine of national character prevailing in continental Europe hold that it is; American jurists generally hold that it is not. The English courts, while holding that a child born within the allegiance and jurisdiction is a natural-born British subject irrespective of alien parentage, held also, after much conflict of opinion, and in disregard of abstract consistency, that a child born in a foreign country of British parents was also a natural-born British subject. The American rule is that a child born and remaining within the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States is a citizen, and within its allegiance and protection, irrespective of the birth or nationality of its parents.— Naturalized citizen, one of foreign birth who has become a citizen by adoption or naturalization,
as distinguished from a native-born or natural born citizen.
The general body of citizens ; the inhabitants of a city as opposed to country people, or the mass of people in common life as opposed to the military, etc.
The state of being vested with the rights and privileges of a citizen. See citizen.
Our citizenship, as saith the apostle, is in heaven.
Bp. Honie, Occasional Sermons, p. 158.
It is possible for a person, without renouncing his country, or expatriating himself, to have the privileges of citizenship in a second country, although he cannot sustain the same obligations to both. Wootsey, Introd. to Inter.|Law. § 66.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 1st edition, 1891
United States v. Darnaud (1855), 25 F.Cas.No. 14,918, p.763.
“You have heard some discussion as to the meaning of this term, citizenship of the United States. It has a plain, simple, everyday meaning; and that meaning you may safely take without a definition. It is that unequivocal relation between every American and his country which binds him to allegiance and pledges to him protection.”
Blackmer v. United States, 284 U.S. 421, 52 S.Ct. 252, 76 L.Ed. 375.
Crosse v. Board of Supervisors of Elections of Baltimore City (1966), 243 Md. 555, 221 A.2d 431.“A citizen owes his government a duty to attend its courts and give his testimony whenever he is properly summoned.”
QUOTATIONS“It is not necessary for a person to be a citizen of the United States in order to become a Citizen of a state.”
Albert Jay Nock said:
H. L. Mencken said:It is interesting to observe that in the year 1935 the average individual's incurious attitude towards the phenomenon of the State is precisely what his attitude was toward the phenomenon of the Church in the year, say, 1500. ... it does not appear to have occurred to the Church-citizen of that day, any more than it occurs to the State-citizen of the present, to ask what sort of institution it was that claimed his allegiance.
Bill Clinton said:The notion that a radical is one who hates his country is naive and usually idiotic. He is, more likely, one who likes his country more than the rest of us, and is thus more disturbed than the rest of us when he sees it debauched. He is not a bad citizen turning to crime; he is a good citizen driven to despair.
John Holt said:I am here because I want to redefine the meaning of citizenship in America... If you’re asked in school ‘What does it mean to be a good citizen?’ I want the answer to be, ‘Well, to be a good citizen, you have to obey the law, you’ve got to go to work or be in school, you’ve got to pay your taxes and, oh, yes, you have to serve in your community to help make it a better place.’
Benjamin Franklin said:It is the duty of a citizen in a free country not to fit into society but to make society.
Socrates said:It is the first responsibility of every citizen to question authority.
Albert Einstein said:I am not an Athenian or a Greek, I am a citizen of the world.
It is the duty of every citizen according to his best capacities to give validity to his convictions in political affairs.