The word "parent" is not found in the Old Testament.
Goneus, Greek Strong’s #1118, is used 19 times in the New Testament. It is translated as “parents” in the following verses:
Progonos, Greek Strong's #4269, is used twice in the New Testament. It is translated as parent (1), and forefather (1). It is translated “parent” in the following verse:Matthew 10:21 - And the brother shall deliver up the brother to death, and the father the child: and the children shall rise up against their parents, and cause them to be put to death.
Mark 13:12 - Now the brother shall betray the brother to death, and the father the son; and children shall rise up against their parents, and shall cause them to be put to death.
Luke 2:27 - And he came by the Spirit into the temple: and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him after the custom of the law,
Luke 2:41 - Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover.
Luke 8:56 - And her parents were astonished: but he charged them that they should tell no man what was done.
Luke 18:29-30 - And he said unto them, Verily I say unto you, There is no man that hath left house, or parents, or brethren, or wife, or children, for the kingdom of God's sake, Who shall not receive manifold more in this present time, and in the world to come life everlasting.
Luke 21:16 - And ye shall be betrayed both by parents, and brethren, and kinsfolks, and friends; and some of you shall they cause to be put to death.
John 9:2-3 - And his disciples asked him, saying, Master, who did sin, this man, or his parents, that he was born blind? Jesus answered, Neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents: but that the works of God should be made manifest in him.
John 9:18-23 - But the Jews did not believe concerning him, that he had been blind, and received his sight, until they called the parents of him that had received his sight. And they asked them, saying, Is this your son, who ye say was born blind? how then doth he now see? His parents answered them and said, We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind: But by what means he now seeth, we know not; or who hath opened his eyes, we know not: he is of age; ask him: he shall speak for himself. These words spake his parents, because they feared the Jews: for the Jews had agreed already, that if any man did confess that he was Christ, he should be put out of the synagogue. Therefore said his parents, He is of age; ask him.
Romans 1:30 - Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,
2 Corinthians 12:14 - Behold, the third time I am ready to come to you; and I will not be burdensome to you: for I seek not yours, but you: for the children ought not to lay up for the parents, but the parents for the children.
Ephesians 6:1 - Children, obey your parents in the Lord: for this is right.
Colossians 3:20 - Children, obey your parents in all things: for this is well pleasing unto the Lord.
2 Timothy 3:2 - For men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy,
Patēr, Greek Strong's #3962, is used 419 times in the New Testament. It is translated as Father (268), father (150), and parents (1). It is translated as “parents” in the following verse:1 Timothy 5:4 - But if any widow have children or nephews, let them learn first to shew piety at home, and to requite their parents: for that is good and acceptable before God.
Miscellaneous DefinitionsHebrews 11:23 - By faith Moses, when he was born, was hid three months of his parents, because they saw he was a proper child; and they were not afraid of the king's commandment.
Webster’s Dictionary, 1828
Bouvier’s Dictionary of Law, 1856PA'RENT, noun [Latin parens, from pario, to produce or bring forth. The regular participle of pario is pariens, and parens is the regular participle of pareo, to appear.]
1. A father or mother; he or she that produces young. The duties of parents to their children are to maintain, protect and educate them.
When parents are wanting in authority, children are wanting in duty.
2. That which produces; cause; source.
Idleness is the parent of vice.
Regular industry is the parent of sobriety.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 1st Edition, 1890PARENTS.
1. The lawful father and mother of the party spoken of. 1 Murph. R. 336; 11 S. & R. 93.
2. The term parent differs from that of ancestor, the latter embracing not only the father and mother, but every per ascending line. It differs also from predecessor, which is applied to corporators. Wood's Inst. 68; 7 Ves. 522; 1 Murph. 336; 6 Binn. 255. See Father; Mother.
3. By the civil law grandfathers and grandmothers, and other ascendants, were, in certain cases, considered parents. Dict. de Jurisp. Parente. Vide 1 Ashm. R. 55; 2 Kent, Com. 159; 5 East, R. 223; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
1. In the place of a parent.
2. It is frequently important in cases of devises and bequests, to ascertain whether the testator did or did not stand towards the devisee or legatee, in loco parentis. In general, those who assume the parental character may be considered as standing in that relation but this character must clearly appear.
3. The fact of his so standing may be shown by positive proof, or the express declarations of the testator in his will, or by circumstances; as, when a grandfather; 2 Atk. 518; a brother; 1 B. & Beat. 298; or an uncle; 2 A. 492; takes an orphan child under his care, or supports him, he assumes the office of a parent. The law places a master in loco parentis in relation to his apprentice. See 2 Ashm. R. 178, 207; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2216.
The Century Dictionary, an Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language, 1895
Wex Legal Dictionary
The legal or natural father or mother of a person; the relationship can be established by birth or by adoption.
In Loco Parentis
A Latin term meaning "in [the] place of a parent" or "instead of a parent." Refers to the legal responsibility of some person or organization to perform some of the functions or responsibilities of a parent.
Miscellaneous Code References
31 CFR 800.219 - Parent.
46 U.S. Code § 12118(a) The term parent means a person who or which directly or indirectly:
(1) Holds or will hold at least 50 percent of the outstanding voting interest in an entity; or
(2) Holds or will hold the right to at least 50 percent of the profits of an entity, or has or will have the right in the event of the dissolution to at least 50 percent of the assets of that entity.
(b) Any entity that meets the conditions of paragraphs (a)(1) or (2) of this section with respect to another entity (i.e., the intermediate parent) is also a parent of any other entity of which the intermediate parent is a parent.
20 U.S. Code § 9402 – Definitions(2) Parent.— The term “parent” means a corporation that has filed a certificate under oath with the Secretary, in the form and at the times prescribed by the Secretary, establishing that the corporation—
(A) is incorporated under the laws of the United States or a State; and
(B) controls, directly or indirectly, at least 50 percent of the voting stock of a Bowaters corporation.
The term “parent” means a biological parent, an adoptive parent, a stepparent, a foster parent, or a legal guardian of, or a person standing in loco parentis to, a child.
Sir Edward Coke said:
John Swett said:[T]he Queen… is Parens patriae, & paterfamilias totius regni (Parent of the country, and the family head of the whole realm).
Jesse Ventura said:[T]he child should be taught to consider his instructor...superior to the parent in point of authority.... The vulgar impression that parents have a legal right to dictate to teachers is entirely erroneous.... Parents have no remedy as against the teacher
Thomas Jefferson said:Government cannot be your parent.
John Taylor Gatto said:Force (is) the vital principle and immediate parent of despotism.
Thomas Jefferson said:Government schooling is the most radical adventure in history. It kills the family by monopolizing the best times of childhood and by teaching disrespect for home and parents....
Charles Sykes said:Is it a right or a duty in society to take care of their infant members in opposition to the will of the parent? How far does this right and duty extend? --to guard the life of the infant, his property, his instruction, his morals? The Roman father was supreme in all these: we draw a line, but where? --public sentiment does not seem to have traced it precisely... It is better to tolerate the rare instance of a parent refusing to let his child be educated, than to shock the common feelings and ideas by the forcible asportation and education of the infant against the will of the father... What is proposed... is to remove the objection of expense, by offering education gratis, and to strengthen parental excitement by the disfranchisement of his child while uneducated. Society has certainly a right to disavow him whom they offer, and are permitted to qualify for the duties of a citizen. If we do not force instruction, let us at least strengthen the motives to receive it when offered.
Mona Charen said:The public expects too much from teachers because educationists have led it to believe teachers could be substitute parents, psychotherapists, cops, social workers, dieticians, nursemaids, babysitters, and nose wipers and still do a decent job teaching kids to read, write, and do math. Instead of saying no, educationists have added courses in environmental education, death education, personal hygiene, self-esteem, driver's ed, job readiness, sexual harassment, radon studies, yoga, yogurt awareness, and god-knows-what-else.
Archibald D. Murphey said:[T]he sprawl of government into every conceivable realm of life has caused the withering of traditional institutions. Fathers become unnecessary if the government provides Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Church charities lose their mission when the government provides food, shelter and income to the poor. And the non-poor no longer feel pressed to provide aid to those in need, be they aged parents or their unfortunate neighbors—“compassion” having become the province of the state.
Alexis de Tocqueville said:It is important therefore that in these schools the precepts of morality and religion should be inculcated, and habits of subordination and obedience formed. One of the greatest blessings which the State can confer upon her children is to instill into their minds at an early period moral and religious truths. ... Thousands of unfortunate children are growing up in perfect ignorance of their moral and religious duties. Their parents equally unfortunate know not how to instruct them, and have not the opportunity or ability of placing them under the care of those who could give them instruction. The State, in the warmth of her affection and solicitude for their welfare, must take charge of those children and place them in schools where their minds can be enlightened and their hearts can be trained to virtue.
Thomas Babington Macaulay:[Tyrannical] power is absolute, minute, regular, provident and mild. It would be like the authority of a parent if, like that authority, its object was to prepare men for manhood; but it seeks, on the contrary, to keep them in perpetual childhood: it is well content that the people should rejoice, provided they think of nothing but rejoicing. For their happiness such a government willingly labors, but it chooses to be the sole agent and the only arbiter of that happiness; it provides for their security, foresees and supplies their necessities, facilitates their pleasures, manages their principal concerns, directs their industry, regulates the descent of property, and subdivides their inheritances: what remains, but to spare them all the care of thinking and all the trouble of living?
Nothing is so galling to a people not broken in from birth as a paternal, or, in other words, a meddling government, a government which tells them what to read, and say, and eat, and drink and wear.