The Holy Bible, English Standard Version, 2001
Compare to KJV:1 Thessalonians 4:10-12 - for that indeed is what you are doing to all the brothers throughout Macedonia. But we urge you, brothers, to do this more and more, and to aspire to live quietly, and to mind your own affairs, and to work with your hands, as we instructed you, so that you may walk properly before outsiders and be dependent on no one.
Commentaries on the Laws of England in Four Books, vol. 1, Sir William Blackstone, 17531 Thessalonians 4:10-12 - And indeed ye do it toward all the brethren which are in all Macedonia: but we beseech you, brethren, that ye increase more and more; And that ye study to be quiet, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, as we commanded you; That ye may walk honestly toward them that are without, and that ye may have lack of nothing.
Man, considered as a creature, must necessarily be subject to the laws of his Creator, for he is entirely a dependent being. A being, independent of any other, has no rule to pursue, but such as he prescribes to himself; but a state of dependence will inevitably oblige the inferior to take the will of him on whom he depends as the rule of his conduct; not, indeed, in every particular, but in all those points wherein his dependence consists. This principle, therefore, has more or less extent and effect, in proportion as the superiority of the one and the dependence of the other is greater or less, absolute or limited. And consequently, as man depends absolutely upon his Maker for every thing, it is necessary that he should, in all points, conform to his Maker’s will.
Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language, 1828For this follows from the very nature and constitution of a dependent state: dependence being very little else, but an obligation to conform to the will or law of that superior person or state, upon which the inferior depends. The original and true ground of this superiority, in the present case, is what we usually call, though somewhat improperly, the right of conquest: a right allowed by the law of nations, if not by that of nature; but which in reason and civil policy can mean nothing more, than that, in order to put an end to hostilities, a compact is either expressly or tacitly made between the conqueror and the conquered, that if they will acknowledge the victor for their master, he will treat them for the future as subjects, and not as enemies.
Bouvier’s Law Dictionary, 1856DEPENDENT, adjective
1. Hanging down; as a dependent leaf.
The furs in the tails were dependent
2. Subject to the power of; at the disposal of; not able to exist or sustain itself without the will or power of. Thus, we are dependent on God and his providence; and effect may be dependent on some unknown cause.
3. Relying on for support or favor; unable to subsist or to perform any thing, without the aid of.
Children are dependent on their parents for food and clothing. The pupil is dependent on his preceptor for instruction.
DEPENDENT, noun One who is at the disposal of another; one who is sustained by another, or who relies on another for support or favor; a retainer; as, the prince was followed by a numerous train of dependents.
There is no entry for “dependent.”
Black’s Law Dictionary, 1st Edition, 1891 Black’s Law Dictionary, 2nd Edition, 1910 Social Security Act, 1935 (U.S. Statutes at Large, Vol. XLIX, p. 620)DEPENDENCY.
A territory distinct from the country in which the supreme sovereign, power resides, but belonging rightfully to it, and subject to the laws and regulations which the sovereign may think proper to prescribe. It differs from a colony, because it is not settled by the citizens of the sovereign or mother state; and from possession, because it is held by other title than that of mere conquest: for example, Malta was considered a dependency of Great Britain in the year 1813. 3 Wash. C. C. R. 286. Vide act of congress, March 1, 1809, commonly called the non importation law.
One which it is not the duty of the contractor to perform, until some obligation contained in the same agreement has been performed by the other party. Ham. on Part. 17, 29, 30, 109.
The Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, a report to the President (1955)4 § 406(a)
The term “dependent child” means a child under the age of sixteen who has been deprived of parental support or care by reason of the death, continued absence from the home, or physical or mental incapacity of a parent, and who is living with his father, mother, grandfather, grandmother, brother, sister, stepfather, stepmother, step brother, step sister, uncle, or aunt, in a place of residence maintained by one or more of such relatives as his or their own home.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 6th Edition, 1991"Prior to the 1920's, public assistance was generally regarded as a supplement to private philanthropy; public relief was supplied primarily by local governments. In the period following World War I, public assistance programs, especially those for the aged, the blind, and dependent children, expanded at a faster rate than private philanthropy. By 1929, more than half of all relief funds came from governmental sources. The National Government, however, spent nothing on public welfare programs before 1932, although it did undertake research in the child welfare field through the Children's Bureau, established in 1912.
"The depression prompted a drastic reallocation of public assistance activities. States and local governments, with few exceptions, could not carry the ever–mounting relief burden by themselves; the National Government took over a larger and larger share.
"At first, the National Government gave temporary aid to State and local relief authorities. In July 1932, the first major National emergency relief legislation authorized loans for direct relief purposes. In 1933, Federal aid took the form of outright grants under the Federal Emergency Relief Act. Through this program, which continued until 1935, grants of over $3 billion were made to the States. In order to remove employable persons from the relief rolls, the National Government also undertook directly to provide work relief. Most important among the several Nationally–administered work programs was the Works Projects Administration, under which more than $10 billion was expended between 1935 and 1942.
An even more far–reaching effect of the depression was the enactment of the Social Security Act of 1935, which marked the assumption by the National Government of a continuing responsibility for assisting the States in promoting the economic security of their citizens. This legislation grew out of the recommendations of the President's Committee on Economic Security. The Committee recommended the social insurance approach for unemployment compensation and old–age insurance as the foundation for a broad system of economic security. The public assistance approach was proposed to complement the insurance programs by covering three groups normally not in the labor force: the aged, the blind, and dependent children. It was expected that old–age assistance would protect those already aged as well as those who could not be covered at all, or covered adequately, by insurance.
"The Social Security Act created a Federally–administered system of old–age insurance financed by compulsory contributions from both employer and employee. Unemployment insurance was established as a cooperative system under which a Federal payroll tax on employers could be partially offset by similar contributions made under State laws. Grants would be made to enable the States to administer unemployment compensation and employment service programs. The act further provided for grants–in–aid to the States for three types of assistance to the needy: old–age assistance, aid to dependent children, and aid to the blind. The National Government thereby discontinued participation in emergency relief for the unemployed and entered the field of categorical assistance instead. A special grant was provided, also, for child welfare services."
Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryDependent, n.
One who derives his or her main support from another. Means relying on, or subjects to, someone else for support; not able to exist or sustain oneself, or to perform anything without the will, power, or aid od someone else. Generally, for workers’ compensation purposes, “dependent” is one who relies on another for support or favor and one who is sustained by another. One who has relied upon decedent for support and who has reasonable expectation that such support will continue.
In taxation, a person who receives more than half of his or her support from the taxpayer during the calendar year; is a relative of the taxpayer, i.e., brother, child, parent, aunt, etc.; and is a citizen or resident of the U.S.
1) A person receiving support from another person (such as a parent), which may qualify the party supporting the dependent for an exemption to reduce income taxes. 2) Requiring an event to occur, as the fulfillment of a contract for delivery of goods is dependent on the goods being available.
A type of Social Security benefit available to spouses and minor or disabled children of retired or disabled workers who qualify for either retirement or disability benefits under the program's rigorous qualification guidelines.
Robert W. Lee:
The statist objective, always, is to make as many persons as possible, as dependent as possible, on a government as big as possible.
James Dale Davidson:It is becoming increasingly apparent that many—arguably most—of the problems that plague our nation have been aggravated rather than alleviated by federal intervention. In one area after another, massive infusions of tax dollars have been squandered on false solutions which, when they fail to achieve their stated objectives, are cited to justify even more spending on other futile schemes that result in bigger government. Examples include programs and laws supposedly intended to reduce racial animosity which have instead heightened race-related tensions; welfare schemes that, rather than reducing poverty, have enticed millions of Americans to become dependent on Washington for their daily bread; federal funding (and control) of education, which has spawned a monumental education crisis; a “war” on drugs which has done little to curb drug traffic, but which has eroded many personal liberties; a health-care finance system that has deteriorated as government meddling and regulation have increased; and a masochistic immigration policy larded with false "solutions" that, while failing to stop the inflow of illegal aliens, have paved the way for further government intrusion into the lives of nearly all Americans.
Col. Allen West:The politicians don’t just want your money. They want your soul. They want you to be worn down by taxes until you are dependent and helpless.
W. H. Chamberlin:The first of the dreams that [my parents] instilled in me was individual responsibility and accountability. They taught me that in life you have consequences to each and every decision that you make, and when you try to shy away from those decisions, when you try to shy away from those consequences then someone will come in and allow you to be seen as a victim, and when you become seen as a victim, it’s a spiraling slope downward and downward. Before the next thing you know, you become dependent upon something and right here in the United States of America this is one of the things that we combat against because too many Americans are being castigated as victims. Too many Americans are not being individually responsible and accountable. Too many Americans are becoming dependent upon government and therefore government continues to grow. My parents and their dream was to have a son that was not a victim, but a son that was a victor, and that enables me to stand here before you today.
Friedrich Nietzsche:One of the most insidious consequences of the present burden of personal income tax is that it strips many middle class families of financial reserves & seems to lend support to campaigns for socialized medicine, socialized housing, socialized food, socialized every thing. The personal income tax has made the individual vastly more dependent on the State & more avid for state hand-outs. It has shifted the balance in America from an individual-centered to a State-centered economic & social system.
Mona Charen:The governments of the great States have two instruments for keeping the people dependent, in fear and obedience: a coarser, the army; and a more refined, the school.
Seymour Papert:[T]he sprawl of government into every conceivable realm of life has caused the withering of traditional institutions. Fathers become unnecessary if the government provides Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Church charities lose their mission when the government provides food, shelter and income to the poor. And the non-poor no longer feel pressed to provide aid to those in need, be they aged parents or their unfortunate neighbors—“compassion” having become the province of the state.
John Sherman:Nothing enrages me more than when people criticize my criticism of school by telling me that schools are not just places to learn math and spelling, they are places where children learn a vaguely defined thing called socialization. I know. I think schools generally do an effective and terribly damaging job of teaching children to be infantile, dependent, intellectually dishonest, passive and disrespectful to their own developmental capacities.
Albert Jay Nock:The few who could understand the system will either be so interested in its profits, or so dependent on its favours, that there will be no opposition from that class, while on the other hand, the great body of the people mentally incapable of comprehending the tremendous advantage that capital derives from the system, will bear its burdens without complaint, and perhaps without even suspecting that the system is inimical to their interests.
John Adams:[T]he State's criminality is nothing new and nothing to be wondered at. It began when the first predatory group of men clustered together and formed the State, and it will continue as long as the State exists in the world, because the State is fundamentally an anti-social institution, fundamentally criminal. The idea that the State originated to serve any kind of social purpose is completely unhistorical. It originated in conquest and confiscation -- that is to say, in crime. It originated for the purpose of maintaining the division of society into an owning-and-exploiting class and a propertyless dependent class -- that is, for a criminal purpose. No State known to history originated in any other manner, or for any other purpose. Like all predatory or parasitic institutions, its first instinct is that of self-preservation. All its enterprises are directed first towards preserving its own life, and, second, towards increasing its own power and enlarging the scope of its own activity. For the sake of this it will, and regularly does, commit any crime which circumstances make expedient.
Neil Cavuto:The nature of the encroachment upon American constitution is such, as to grow every day more and more encroaching. Like a cancer; it eats faster and faster every hour. The revenue creates pensioners, and the pensioners urge for more revenue. The people grow less steady, spirited and virtuous, the seekers more numerous and more corrupt, and every day increases the circles of their dependents and expectants, until virtue, integrity, public spirit, simplicity and frugality become the objects of ridicule and scorn, and vanity, luxury, foppery, selfishness, meanness, and downright venality swallow up the whole of society.
Eric Hoffer:It's about food. It’s about your home. It’s about your life. The government is worried about all of the above. All I’m saying is you should be worried they’re worried. Here’s why: They’re telling you that you can’t take care of yourself. You can’t be trusted with what you put in your mouth or what you sign on the mortgage dotted line. So they’ll tell you what to put in your mouth and they’ll save you from what you signed on that dotted line. Does anyone see a trend here? Personal responsibility has now become government responsibility.
Thomas Jefferson:The real "haves" are they who can acquire freedom, self-confidence, and even riches without depriving others of them. They acquire all of these by developing and applying their potentialities. On the other hand, the real "have nots" are they who cannot have aught except by depriving others of it. They can feel free only by diminishing the freedom of others, self-confident by spreading fear and dependence among others, and rich by making others poor.
Charles Koch:Dependence begets subservience and venality, suffocates the germ of virtue, and prepares fit tools for the designs of ambition.
Nicholas Kristof:Instead of fostering a system that enables people to help themselves, America is now saddled with a system that destroys value, raises costs, hinders innovation and relegates millions of citizens to a life of poverty, dependency and hopelessness. This is what happens when elected officials believe that people’s lives are better run by politicians and regulators than by the people themselves. Those in power fail to see that more government means less liberty, and liberty is the essence of what it means to be American. Love of liberty is the American ideal.
Bernard H. Levin:This is painful for a liberal to admit, but conservatives have a point when they suggest that America’s safety net can sometimes entangle people in a soul-crushing dependency. Our poverty programs do rescue many people, but other times they backfire.
P. J. O'Rourke:If we expected self-reliance of family groups, if we expected hardiness and resilience and initiative on the part of individuals, and if we rewarded initiative instead of dependence on government, we would not only ameliorate many of the family-related social problems we see at present, but we would also reduce our vulnerability to terrorism. People who are hardy, resilient, and self reliant are a lot harder to terrorize.
Freedom is not empowerment. Empowerment is what the Serbs have in Bosnia. Anybody can grab a gun and be empowered. It's not entitlement. An entitlement is what people on welfare get, and how free are they? It's not an endlessly expanding list of rights -- the "right" to education, the "right" to health care, the "right" to food and housing. That's not freedom, that's dependency. Those aren't rights, those are rations of slavery -- hay and a barn for human cattle. There's only one basic human right, the right to do as you damn well please. And with it comes the only basic human duty, the duty to take the consequences.