Government

Comprehending laws and contracts is impossible, unless we first learn the meaning of the words and phrases they contain.

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notmartha
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Government

Post by notmartha » Sun Nov 19, 2017 9:25 am

BIBLE

KJV References

Miśrâ, Hebrew Strong's #4951, is a noun found 2 times in the OT. It is translated as “government” in the following verses:
Isaiah 9:6 – 7 –
For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.
Memshālâ, Hebrew Strong's #4475, is a noun found 17 times in the OT. It is translated as dominion (10), rule (4), dominion + <H3027> (1), government (1), power (1). It is translated as “government” in the following verse:
Isaiah 22:21 - And I will clothe him with thy robe, and strengthen him with thy girdle, and I will commit thy government into his hand: and he shall be a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah.
Kybernēsis, Greek Strong's #2941, is a noun found 1 time in the NT, translated as “government” in the following verse:
1 Corinthians 12:28 - And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues.
Kyriotēs, Greek Strong's #2963, is a noun found 4 times in the NT. It is translated as dominion (3), government (1). It is translated as “government” in the following verse:
2 Peter 2:10 - But chiefly them that walk after the flesh in the lust of uncleanness, and despise government. Presumptuous are they, selfwilled, they are not afraid to speak evil of dignities.

"Govern" or "Governor" in OT.
govern or governor in OT.pdf
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"Govern" or "Governor" in NT.
govern or governor in NT.pdf
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Anti-Thought-Control Dictionary created by American Christian Ministries
http://benwilliamslibrary.com/dictionary_set.html
GOVERNMENT

CONTROLLED MEANING:
The body of politicians that rules over states and nations. The sovereign, central ruling power. Governments are required for civil society among men.

CORRECT MEANING:
The exercise of restraint or regulation – as in "Self-Government." Government, itself, is not an institution. The state or nation is the institution, and "Government" is only the application of its laws of charter. Christian government is the act of shepherding, overseeing, ministering.

The concept of "government" as a ruling institution is purely pagan. It is based upon the heathen premise that Man is God.

Men are not rightly "lawmakers," "rulers" or "lords" (Jms 4:12 & I Pet 5:1-3). Pagan central rulership is very different from Christian leadership.

"But Jesus called them to him, and said to them, 'You know that they which are accounted to rule over the Heathen exercise lordship over them (pagan government);. . . But so shall it not be among you: but whosoever will be great among you, shall be your minister (Christian government). And whosoever of you will be the chiefest, shall be servant of all for even the Son of man came not to be ministered to, but to minister,. . .'." (Mark 10:42-45)
DEFINITIONS

Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language, 1828
GOV'ERN, verb transitive [Latin guberno. The Latin guberno seems to be a compound.]
1. To direct and control, as the actions or conduct of men, either by established laws or by arbitrary will; to regulate by authority; to keep within the limits prescribed by law or sovereign will. Thus in free states, men are governed by the constitution and laws; in despotic states, men are governed by the edicts or commands of a monarch. Every man should govern well his own family.
2. To regulate; to influence; to direct. This is the chief point by which he is to govern all his counsels and actions.
3. To control; to restrain; to keep in due subjection; as, to govern the passions or temper.
4. To direct; to steer; to regulate the course or motion of a ship. The helm or the helmsman governs the ship.
5. In grammar, to require to be in a particular case; as, a verb transitive governs a word in the accusative case; or to require a particular case; as, a verb governs the accusative case.
GOV'ERN, verb intransitive To exercise authority; to administer the laws. The chief magistrate should govern with impartiality.
1. To maintain the superiority; to have the control.
GOV'ERNMENT, noun Direction; regulation. These precepts will serve for the government of our conduct.
1. Control; restraint. Men are apt to neglect the government of their temper and passions.
2. The exercise of authority; direction and restraint exercised over the actions of men in communities, societies or states; the administration of public affairs, according to established constitution, laws and usages, or by arbitrary edicts. Prussia rose to importance under the government of Frederick II.
3. The exercise of authority by a parent or householder. Children are often ruined by a neglect of government in parents.
Let family government be like that of our heavenly Father, mild, gentle and affectionate.
4. The system of polity in a state; that form of fundamental rules and principles by which a nation or state is governed, or by which individual members of a body politic are to regulate their social actions; a constitution, either written or unwritten, by which the rights and duties of citizens and public officers are prescribed and defined; as a monarchial government or a republican government
Thirteen governments thus founded on the natural authority of the people alone, without the pretence of miracle or mystery, are a great point gained in favor of the rights of mankind.
5. An empire, kingdom or state; any territory over which the right of sovereignty is extended.
6. The right of governing or administering the laws. The king of England vested the government of Ireland in the lord lieutenant.
7. The persons or council which administer the laws of a kingdom or state; executive power.
8. Manageableness; compliance; obsequiousness.
9. Regularity of behavior. [Not in use.]
10. Management of the limbs or body. [Not in use.]
11. In grammar, the influence of a word in regard to construction, as when established usage required that one word should cause another to be in a particular case or mode.
Bouvier’s Law Dictionary, 1856
GOVERNMENT, natural and political law.

1. The manner in which sovereignty is exercised in each state.

2. There are three simple forms of government, the democratic, the aristocratic, and monarchical. But these three simple forms may be varied to infinity by the mixture and divisions of their different powers. Sometimes by the word government is understood the body of men, or the individual in the state, to whom is entrusted the executive power. It is taken in this sense when the government is spoken of in opposition to other bodies in the state.

3. Governments are also divided into monarchical and republican; among the monarchical states may be classed empires, kingdoms, and others; in these the sovereignty resides in, a single individual. There are some monarchical states under the name of duchies, counties, and the like. Republican states are those where the sovereignty is in several persons. These are subdivided into aristocracies, where the power is exercised by a few persons of the first rank in the state; and democracies, which are those governments where the common people may exercise the highest powers. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 20. See Aristocracy; Democracy; Despotism; Monarchy; Theocracy.

4. It should be remembered, however, that governments, for the most part, have not been framed on models. Their parts and their powers grew out of occasional acts, prompted by some urgent expediency, or some private interest, which, in the course of time, coalesced and hardened into usages. These usages became the object of respect and the guide of conduct long before they were embodied in written laws. This subject is philosophically treated by Sir James McIntosh, in his History of England. See vol. 1, p. 71, et seq.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 1st Edition, 1891 and 2nd Edition, 1910
GOVERNMENT.

1. The regulation, restraint, supervision, or control which is exercised upon the individual members of an organized jural society by those invested with the supreme political authority, for the good and welfare of the body politic; or the act of exercising supreme political power or control.

2. The system of polity in a state; that form of fundamental rules and principles by which a nation or state is governed, or by which individual members of a body politic are to regulate their social actions; a constitution, either written or unwritten, by which the rights and duties of citizens and public officers are prescribed and defined, as a monarchical government, a republican government, etc. Webster.

3. An empire, kingdom, state, or independent political community; as in the phrase, “Compacts between independent governments.”

4. The sovereign or supreme power in a state or nation.

5. The machinery by which the sovereign power in a state expresses its will and exercises its functions; or the framework of political institutions, departments, and offices, by means of which the executive, judicial, legislative, and administrative business of the state is carried on.

6. The whole class or body of office-holders or functionaries considered in the aggregate, upon whom devolves the executive, judicial, legislative, and administrative business of the state.

7. In a colloquial sense, the United States, or its representatives, considered as the prosecutor in a criminal action; as in the phrase, “the government objects to the witness.”

We understand, in modern political science, by “state, " in its widest sense, an independent society, acknowledging no superior, and by the term “government, " that institution or aggregate of institutions by which that society makes and carries out those rules of action which are necessary to enable men to live in a social state, or which are imposed upon the people forming that society by those who possess the power or authority of prescribing them. “Government" is the aggregate of authorities which rule a society. By “administration," again, we understand in modern times. And especially in more or: less free countries, the aggregate of those persons in whose hands the reins of government are for the time being, (the chief ministers or heads of departments.) But the terms “state,” “government” and “administration” are not always used in their strictness. The government of estate being its most prominent feature, which is most readily perceived, “government” has frequently been used for “state ; " and the publicists of the last century almost always used the term “government, " or “form of government," when they discussed the different political societies or states On the other hand, “government” is often used, to this day, for “administration," in the sense in which it has been explained. Bouvier.
Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and of the Political History of the United States, vol. 2, John Joseph Lalor, 1881
Lalor on Government.pdf
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The Century Dictionary, an Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language, 1895
government cent.JPG
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Black’s Law Dictionary, 4th Edition, 1968
GOVERN.

To direct and control the actions or conduct of, either by established laws or by arbitrary will; to direct and control, rule, or regulate, by authority. Tucker v. State, 218 Ind. 614, 35 N.E.2d 270, 291. To be a rule, precedent, law or deciding principle for. Asnon v. Foley, 105 Cal.App. 624, 288 P. 792, 795.
GOVERNMENT.

From the Latin gubernaculum.

Signifies the instrument, the helm, whereby the ship to which the state was compared, was guided on its course by the "gubernator" or helmsman, and in that view, the government is but an agency of the state, distinguished as it must be in accurate thought from its scheme and machinery of government. State v. Chase, 175 Minn. 259, 220 N.W. 951, 953.

The system of polity in a state; that form of fundamental rules and principles by which a nation or state is governed, or by which individual members of a body politic are to regulate their social actions; a constitution, either written or unwritten, by which the rights and duties of citizens and public officers are prescribed and defined, as a monarchical government, a republican government, etc. Webster.

An empire, kingdom, state or independent political community; as in the phrase, "Compacts between independent governments."

The sovereign or supreme power in a state or nation.

The machinery by which the sovereign power in a state expresses its will and exercises its functions; or the framework of political institutions, departments, and offices, by means of which the executive, judicial, legislative, and administrative business of the state is carried on.

The whole class or body of office-holders or functionaries considered in the aggregate, upon whom devolves the executive, judicial, legislative, and administrative business of the state. Stokes v. United States, C.C.A.Mo., 264 F. 18, 22.

In a colloquial sense, the United States or its representatives, considered as the prosecutor in
a criminal action; as in the phrase, "the government objects to the witness."

The regulation, restraint, supervision, or control which is exercised upon the individual members of an organized jural society by those invested with authority; or the act of exercising supreme political power or control. Chicago, B. & Q. R. Co. v. School Dist. No. 1 in Yuma County, 63 Colo. 159, 165 P. 260, 263.
Black’s Law Dictionary, 5th Edition, 1979
Govern.

To direct and control the actions or conduct of, either by established laws or by arbitrary will; to direct and control, rule, or regulate, by authority. To be a rule, precedent, law or deciding principle for.
Government.

From the Latin gubernaculum.

Signifies the instrument, the helm, whereby the ship to which the state was compared, was guided on its course by the "gubernator" or helmsman, and in that view, the government is but an agency of the state, distinguished as it must be in accurate thought from its scheme and machinery of government.

In the United States, government consists of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches in addition to administrative agencies. In a broader sense, includes the federal government and all its agencies and bureaus, state and county governments, and city and township governments.

The system of polity in a state; that form of fundamental rules and principles by which a nation or state is governed, or by which individual members of a body politic are to regulate their social actions. A constitution, either written or unwritten, by which the rights and duties of citizens and public officers are prescribed and defined, as a monarchical government, a republican government, etc. The sovereign or supreme power in a state or nation. The machinery by which the sovereign power in a state expresses its will and exercises its functions; or the framework of political institutions, departments, and offices, by means of which the executive, judicial, legislative, and administrative business of the state is carried on.

The whole class or body of officeholders or functionaries considered in the aggregate, upon whom devolves the executive, judicial, legislative, and administrative business of the state.

In a colloquial sense, the United States or its representatives, considered as the prosecutor in a criminal action; as in the phrase, "the government objects to the witness."

The regulation, restraint, supervision, or control which is exercised upon the individual members of an organized jural society by those invested with authority; or the act of exercising supreme political power or control.
DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 2017
governance —
The state’s ability to serve the citizens through the rules, processes, and behavior by which interests are articulated, resources are managed, and power is exercised in a society, including the representative participatory decision-making processes typically guaranteed under inclusive, constitutional authority. (JP 3-24)
QUOTES

Ronald Reagan:
Government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem.... We've been tempted to believe that society has become too complex to be managed by self-rule, that government by an elite group is superior to government for, by, and of the people. Well, if no one among us is capable of government himself, then who among us has the capacity to govern someone else? All of us together, in and out of government, must bear the burden. The solutions we seek must be equitable, with no one group singled out to pay a higher price.
No government ever voluntarily reduces itself in size. Government programs, once launched, never disappear. Actually, a government bureau is the nearest thing to eternal life we'll ever see on this earth!
Nations crumble from within when the citizenry asks of government those things which the citizenry might better provide for itself. ... hope we have once again reminded people that man is not free unless government is limited. There's a clear cause and effect here that is as neat and predictable as a law of physics: As government expands, liberty contracts.
Ours was the first revolution in the history of mankind that truly reversed the course of government, and with three little words: 'We the people.' 'We the people' tell the government what to do, it doesn't tell us. 'We the people' are the driver, the government is the car. And we decide where it should go, and by what route, and how fast. Almost all the world's constitutions are documents in which governments tell the people what their privileges are. Our Constitution is a document in which 'We the people' tell the government what it is allowed to do. 'We the people' are free. This belief has been the underlying basis for everything I've tried to do these past eight years.
James Madison:
If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place, oblige it to control itself.
Government is instituted to protect property of every sort. ... This being the end of government, that alone is a just government, which impartially secures to every man, whatever is his own.
Thomas Paine:
A constitution is not the act of a government, but of a people constituting a government; and government without a constitution is power without a right. All power exercised over a nation, must have some beginning. It must be either delegated, or assumed. There are not other sources. All delegated power is trust, and all assumed power is usurpation. Time does not alter the nature and quality of either.
Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one; for when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries by a government, which we might expect in a country without government, our calamity is heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer.
Henry David Thoreau:
I heartily accept the motto, that government is best which governs least ... Carried out, it finally amounts to this, which I also believe, that government is best which governs not at all; and when men are prepared for it, that will be the kind of government which they will have.
Daniel Webster:
Whatever government is not a government of laws, is a despotism, let it be called what they may.
Henry Clay:
All religions united with government are more or less inimical to liberty. All, separated from government, are compatible with liberty.
Mahatma Mohandas K. Gandhi:
Good government is the most dangerous government, because it deprives people of the need to look after themselves.
Theodore Roosevelt:
Behind the ostensible government sits enthroned an invisible government owing no allegiance and acknowledging no responsibility to the people. To destroy this invisible government, to befoul the unholy alliance between corrupt business and corrupt politics is the first task of the statesmanship of the day.
Jacob G. Hornberger:
The true patriot scrutinizes the actions of his own government with unceasing vigilance. And when his government violates the morality and rightness associated with principles of individual freedom and private property, he immediately rises in opposition to his government.
Thomas Jefferson:
I do verily believe that if the principle were to prevail of a common law being in force in the United States (which principle possesses the general government at once of all the powers of the state governments, and reduces us to a single consolidated government), it would become the most corrupt government on the earth.
When the government fears the people there is liberty; when the people fear the government there is tyranny.
My reading of history convinces me that most bad government results from too much government. That government is best which governs least.

MAXIMS

Ipsae legis cupiunt ut jure regantur.
The laws themselves require that they should be governed by right.

Locus contractus regit actum.
The place of the contract governs the act.

Minor minorem custodire non debet, alios enim praesumitur male regere qui seipsum regere nuscit.
A minor ought not to be guardian of a minor, for he is unfit to govern others who does not know how to govern himself.

Nihil infra regnum subditos magis conservat in tranquilitate et concordiâ quam debita legum administratio.
Nothing preserves in tranquility and concord those who are subjected to the same government better than a due administration of the laws.
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